Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Turkish Adaptation of Test of Pretended Play*

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Turkish Adaptation of Test of Pretended Play*

Article excerpt

Abstract

The objective of present research is to conduct validity and reliability analysis of the verbal section of Test of Pretended Play that will measure pretended play behaviors of pre-school age children (3-6 years of age]. Test of Pretended Play was first developed by Vicky Lewis and Jill Boucher in 1997. This test aimed to measure oretended play behavioral development of normal children between ages 1 to 6 besides children with mental developmental problems till the age 8. The test consists of two parts; verbal and nonverbal. Verbal part is composed of four subsections which are dally objects, toys and non-representative materials, one-symbol toy olaymg pretended play alone. Reliability analysis demonstrated that test-retest correlation is ,933 (p<-,001). In oresent research, at the end of statistical analyses conducted to detect the validity analysis of scale, a statistically meaningful positive relationship on level ,001 has been detected between Pretended Play Total Scores anc Raven Progressive Matrix Test (RAVEN] total; a statistically meaningful positive relationship on level ,001 with Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory (ADSI] and a statistically meaningful positive relationship on level 001 with Language Use Scale. In order to compare with respect to pretended play normally developing childrer and children with autism and mental disability, abstract thinking, development and language use skills as the differences between total average scores are analyzed, it surfaces that score average of normally developing children is higher than children with autism and mental disability; score average of children with mental disability is on the other hand significantly higher than autistic group.

Key Words

Pretended Play, Autistic, Mentally Disabled, Abstract Thinking, Language.

During the adaptation process into the world they meet for the first time, children enter in a stage of interaction with their surroundings to hold a place in life. While building up interactions with their surrounding during this process, children also start to get familiar and further experienced with the world they live in. Preschool period in particular is the stage children are most adaptive to physical, mental and social learning. Throughout this stage children can now express their knowledge more clearly and exhibit through their actions as well. As stated by Tsao (2002), children gain knowledge acquisition, use this knowledge in new situations and abstract thinking skills through personal experiences. The greatest share in these experiences belongs to plays.

The positive effect of plays in a variety of developmental aspects of children throughout early childhood stage is well known (Ahioglu, 1999; Baron-Cohen, Leslie, & Frith, 1985; Jobling, Virji-Babul, & Nichols, 2006; Maguire & Dunn, 1997; Nielsen & Dissanayake, 2000; Saracho, 1999; Sarimski & Suss-Burghart, 1991; Shim, Herwig, & Shelly, 2001; Sigafoos, Roberts-Pennell, & Graves, 1999; Stanley, 2003; Stanley & Konstantareas, 2007; Swindells & Stegnitti, 2006). Piaget similarly argues that plays are the bridges existing in the gap between concrete experience and abstract thinking. It is this process when the significance of pretended play takes one step ahead (cited in Casby, 1997). According to Vygotsky real play takes stage at around age three with "pretended" play that is intertwined with so-cio-dramatic plays. In his words, play is, at all times, a socially symbolic activity (cited in Nicolopoulou, 1993). Aside from playing with toys in line with their functions, pretended play is- by attributing a function or quality to a particular object- reusing this object in a symbolic manner like "as if it were..." which also corresponds to one of the stages in cognitive development of a child (Jordan, 2003). Pretended Play improves symbolic comprehension. The child can now understand that toys are symbolic representations of reality. …

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