Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Pre-Service Science and Technology Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs about Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Usage and Material Design

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Pre-Service Science and Technology Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs about Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Usage and Material Design

Article excerpt

Abstract

In this study, a scale entitled "Information and Communication Technologies Usage and Material Design Efficacy JCT_MDE]" is developed to investigate pre-service science and technology teachers' efficacy beliefs regarding CT usage and Material Design and the factors impacting these beliefs. By using the validity and reliability date from 310 pre-service teachers, CT_MDE scale is concluded to be a valid and reliable instrument consisting of two factors: Basic ICT Skills and Original Material Design. Based on the data from this pilot study; the efficacy .eveIs in Basic ICT Skills factor significantly changed by the income level and computer usage experience. How¬ever, efficacy scores in Original Material Design factor are found to differ only by computer usage experience. rurthermore, no significant difference due to gender has been observed in both factors.

Key Words

Information and Communication Technologies, Material Design, Efficacy, Pre-service Teacher.

Parallel to its growing influence in our daily lives, Information and Communication Technologies [ICT] significantly impact the educational process¬es. ICT is discussed in a separate chapter in Teacher Efficacy handbook, published in 2008 by the Milli Egitim Bakanligi [MEB], and it has been stated that teachers should master in choosing, applying and evaluating the appropriate ICT for their subjects (MEB, 2008). However, based on the past studies, in-service teachers have been found to be very in¬efficient in ICT literacy and usage (Akkoyunlu & Kurbanoglu, 2004; Cüre & Özdener, 2008; Demir-aslan & Usluel, 2005; Umay 2004)

Self-efficacy term was introduced by Albert Ban-dura (1977) and has been defined as "the beliefs in one's capability to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given at¬tainments" (Bandura, 1997, p.3). According to Bandura, efficacy expectations determine peo¬ple's choice of activities, how much effort they will expend, and how long they will sustain effort in dealing with these activities. Bandura's theory was well received in research in teaching and the term personal teaching efficacy was defined by Ashton and Webb (1986). Since the efficacy be¬liefs are accepted to be context and subject mat¬ter dependent, definitions have been extended to specific subject areas. Based on these definitions, ICT and Material Design self-efficacy can be de¬scribed as the efficacy expectation regarding the choosing, planning and effective using of the ap¬propriate ICT or material for a subject (Akgün, 2008; Akkoyunlu & Kurbanoglu, 2003; Çuhadar & Yücel, 2010).

Material Design in Turkey and Teachers

All teacher education programs in Turkey require the "Teaching Technologies and Material Design" undergraduate course. By the end of this course, teacher candidates are planned to be able to design and use two and three-dimensional materials, as well as, be able to gather materials that have already been designed. Material use is particularly impor¬tant in science courses because it is crucial to con¬cretize the abstract science concepts and effectively employ the student-centered teaching methods. Studies related to these topics indicate that the ma¬jority of in-service and pre-service teachers agree with the importance of using materials in science education and feel confident in using ready materi¬als (Fidan, 2008; Karamustafaoglu, 2006; Korkmaz, 2011), but they also stated that they experienced serious problems especially in designing materials (Karamustafaoglu; Korkmaz).

ICT Usage in Turkey and Teachers

As a result of the initiatives for the development of the technological infrastructure of Turkey, 48 edu¬cational centres have been established in 1984 and 1100 computers have been bought for secondary education institutes (Demiraslan & Usluel, 2008; Türkmen, 2006). Although, it has been emphasized that teachers should participate in the process of adapting ICT to the curriculum to enhance the qual¬ity of ICT usage (Altun, 2007; Bakar & Mohamed, 2008; Demiraslan & Usluel; Guzey & Roehrig, 2009; Koca & Usluel, 2007; Russell & Bradley, 1997), the inefficiency of teachers in using these sources has been repeatedly reported in many counties, includ¬ing Turkey (Akkoyunlu & Kurbanoglu, 2004; Al¬tun; Bingimlas, 2009; Brown & Warschauer, 2006; Cüre & Özdener, 2008; Demiraslan & Usluel, 2005; Russell & Bradley; Türkmen; Umay, 2004). …

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