Academic journal article Journal of Behavioural Sciences

Relationship between Perceived Parenting Style, Perceived Parental Acceptance-Rejection (PAR) and Perception of God among Young Adults

Academic journal article Journal of Behavioural Sciences

Relationship between Perceived Parenting Style, Perceived Parental Acceptance-Rejection (PAR) and Perception of God among Young Adults

Article excerpt

The present study explored how different parenting styles and perceived parental acceptance-rejection (PAR) influence the children's perception of God. Perceived parental acceptance- rejection (PAR) has

profound influence in shaping children's personality development over the life span (Rohner, 2002), and this could also extend to their relationship with God.

Children's perception of their parents attempts to control their behavior (Baumrind, 1991). Perceived parenting styles are either indulgent, authoritarian, authoritative, or uninvolved (Maccoby & Martin, 1983). Each of these parenting styles denotes the parental responsiveness (parental warmth or supportiveness) and parental demandingness (behavioral control) perceived by their children. The parental values and behavior, responsiveness and demandingness are reflected in these styles (Baumrind, 1991).

Perceived parenting styles provide a healthy indicator of parenting functioning that predicts child well-being. Both parental responsiveness and parental demandingness are important components of good parenting. Authoritative parenting is one of the most consistent family predictors of competence from early childhood through adolescence (Baumrind 1991; Darling & Steinberg, 1993). Perceived Parental Acceptance-Rejection (PAR) researchers have shown that perceived parental rejection has negative effect on the psychological adjustment and behavioral functioning of both children and adults worldwide (Rohner & Britner 2002; Rohner, Khaleque, & Cournoyer, 2006).

Perceived parental acceptance-rejection refers to a bipolar dimension of parental warmth, with parental acceptance at the positive end of the range and parental rejection at the negative end. Parental acceptance refers to the love, affection, care, comfort, support, or nurturance that parents can feel and express toward their children. Parental rejection refers to the absence or withdrawal of warmth, love, or affection by parents toward their children (Rohner, 1994). The nature of parent-child relationship appears to correlate with the relationship with God. Early experiences build the framework not only for person himself, people and significant others and extends it to include the supernatural being, (Rohner, Khaleque, & Cournoyer, 2006).

The transmission of religiosity within families influences the religious beliefs and practices of children and adolescents, as the parents and family are the primary agent of religious socialization, more likely when parent-child relationships are warm and parental communication about religion is clear (Mabe, 2005). Parents also influence the description and definition of God. The way children perceived their parents, can relate strongly to their image of God. This can also help our understanding the dynamics of personal religion (Benson & Spilka, 1973).

A person's God image has strong effect on the mental health of person. Hetzel & Gail (2004)) explored the effects of a person's God image and religiosity on his or her attitudes toward seeking mental health services and found that individuals who perceive God as present, benevolent, and loving have more positive attitudes towards seeking professional help. Individuals who report higher degrees of intrinsic religiosity also indicated more positive attitudes toward counseling.

Increasingly research has focused on understanding and defining God as an attachment figure (Kirkpatrick, 1997, 1998, 1999; Kirkpatrick & Shaver, 1990, 1992; McDonald, 2000). Kirkpatrick (1999) has argued that relationship with God can be described as an attachment bond. Development of religious involvement in youth is an important issue in today's world especially in the region. Parents are the strongest influence on child's religious development. Parental transmission of religiosity and religious identity starts early, and is strongly related to religious identity thus formed (Myers, 2000). …

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