Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Elucidating the Role of Recovery Experiences in the Job Demands-Resources Model

Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Elucidating the Role of Recovery Experiences in the Job Demands-Resources Model

Article excerpt

Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, the current study examined the moderating role of recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment from work, relaxation, mastery experiences, and control over leisure time) on the relationship between one job demand (i.e., role conflict) and workand health-related outcomes. Results from our sample of 990 employees from Spain showed that psychological detachment from work and relaxation buffered the negative impact of role conflict on some of the proposed outcomes. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find significant results for mastery and control regarding moderating effects. Overall, findings suggest a differential pattern of the recovery experiences in the health impairment process proposed by the JD-R model.

Keywords: job demands, recovery, health, well-being.

El estudio que aquí se presenta se fundamenta en el modelo de Demandas-Recursos Laborales y se centra en el análisis de las experiencias de recuperación (distanciamiento psicológico, relajación, búsqueda de retos y ocio) como moderadoras de la relación entre las demandas laborales (conflicto de rol) y la salud relacionada con el trabajo. Los resultados obtenidos con una muestra laboral española de 990 trabajadores muestra que el distanciamiento psicológico y la relajación median el impacto negativo del conflicto de rol en las medidas propuestas. Contrariamente a los resultados esperados, no se encontraron resultados significativos para las variables de recuperación, mastery y ocio. En general, los resultados sugieren un patrón diferencial de las experiencias de recuperación en el proceso de salud propuesto por el modelo de Demandas-Recursos Laborales.

Palabras clave: demandas laborales, recuperación, salud, bienestar.

Researchers have begun to recognize that to understand the effects of job stressors on well-being, it is crucial to focus on variables that take place outside the work domain (Etzion, Eden, & Lapidot, 1998; Sonnentag, 2001; Sonnentag & Fritz, 2007). Within this perspective, recovery offers the individual resources to reduce the negative effects of job demands (Eden, 2001). The concept of recovery has been defined as a process opposite to the building up of stress, characterized by a psycho-physiological unwinding (Geurts & Sonnentag, 2006). During the recovery process, psychophysiological systems return to a baseline level, giving the individual the opportunity to replenish resources and face new demands without entering into a chronic spiral of health problems (Meijman & Mulder, 1998).

In the field of organizational health psychology, the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Model emphasizes that job and personal resources may buffer the impact of job demands on stress reactions (e.g., Bakker, Demerouti, & Euwema, 2005; Bakker, van Veldhoven, & Xanthopoulou, 2010; Xanthopoulou, Bakker, Demerouti, & Schaufeli, 2007). According to this perspective, resources that offer recovery may be useful to reduce the negative impact of job demands on several outcomes. To achieve a complete picture of the role of recovery, Sonnentag and Fritz (2007) have classified external recovery into four different experiences (i.e., psychological detachment from work, relaxation, mastery experiences, and control over leisure time). These recovery experiences are understood not as activities per se, but as underlying psychological experiences through which people feel recovered. Lately, there has been a growing interest in analyzing recovery experiences as buffering mechanisms between demands and different outcomes; however, most of them offer a fragmented vision, focusing only on psychological detachment (Etzion et al., 1998; Moreno- Jiménez, Rodríguez-Muñoz, Pastor, Sanz-Vergel, & Garrosa, 2009; Moreno-Jiménez, Mayo et al., 2009). To our knowledge, there are only two studies examining the moderating role of the four recovery experiences in the stress-strain process (Kinnunen, Mauno, & Siltaloppi, 2010; Siltaloppi, Kinnunen, & Feldt, 2009). …

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