Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

About the Dark and Bright Sides of Self-Efficacy: Workaholism and Work Engagement

Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

About the Dark and Bright Sides of Self-Efficacy: Workaholism and Work Engagement

Article excerpt

Taking the Resources-Experiences-Demands Model (RED Model) by Salanova and colleagues as our starting point, we tested how work self-efficacy relates positively to negative (i.e., work overload and work-family conflict) and positive outcomes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment), through the mediating role of workaholism (health impairment process) and work engagement (motivational process). In a sample of 386 administrative stafffrom a Spanish University (65% women), Structural Equation Modeling provided full evidence for the research model. In addition, Multivariate Analyses of Variance showed that self-efficacy was only related positively to one of the two dimensions of workaholism, namely, working excessively. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and practical contributions in terms of the RED Model.

Keywords: self-efficacy, workaholism, work engagement.

Tomando como base teórica el Modelo de Recursos-Experiencias-Demandas (Modelo RED) de Salanova y colegas, analizamos cómo la autoeficacia laboral se relaciona positivamente con resultados negativos (i.e., sobrecarga cuantitativa y conflicto trabajo-familia) y con resultados positivos (i.e., satisfacción laboral y compromiso organizacional), a través del rol mediador de la adicción al trabajo (proceso de erosión) y el engagement o vinculación laboral (proceso motivacional). En una muestra de 386 trabajadores PAS (Personal de Administración y Servicios) de una Universidad Española (65% mujeres), utilizando Ecuaciones Estructurales obtuvimos evidencia total para el modelo de investigación propuesto. Además, diversos Análisis Multivariados de Varianza mostraron que la autoeficacia se relacionaba positivamente solo con una de las dos dimensiones de la adicción al trabajo, esto es, trabajar excesivamente. Finalmente, discutimos las contribuciones teóricas y prácticas del estudio basándonos en el Modelo RED.

Palabras clave: autoeficacia, adicción al trabajo, vinculación laboral.

Globalization of markets, demands from the environment, and the economic crisis are all indicators that society is in a state of continuous change. Those who are able to adapt to the changes taking place have more opportunities to improve their skills and perceive these changes as challenges. The extent to which people believe in their own capabilities is a crucial aspect in order to achieve this adaptation, especially in organizations which are continuously optimizing their procedures to obtain maximum profits. In this context, employees need to have confidence in themselves in order to perform and feel well. This confidence in one's capabilities has been called self-efficacy and, according to Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), it is defined as the "beliefs in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments" (Bandura, 1997, p. 3). Self-efficacious people are those who believe that they have the power to produce the desired effects by their own actions, to be motivated to act, to persevere in the face of difficulties, and to be resilient in the face of adversity.

A growing body of research attests the impact of selfefficacy on positive consequences such as performance (Stajkovic, Lee, & Nyberg, 2009), affect (Salanova, Llorens, & Schaufeli, 2011) and work engagement (Llorens, Schaufeli, Bakker, & Salanova, 2007; Salanova, Llorens et al., 2011; Salanova, Lorente, Chambel, & Martínez, 2011). However, although past research has confirmed the existence of links between self-efficacy and positive consequences, other scholars are focusing on the impact of self-efficacy on negative consequences. For example, Vancouver, Thompson, Tischner and Putka (2002) conducted two studies which show that by manipulating self-efficacy in an analytic game, it negatively relates to performance in the next trial. Specifically, a manipulation designed to increase self-efficacy increased self-efficacy but had no overall relation to performance at the between-person level. …

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