Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Development and Validation of the Theory of Planned Behavior Questionnaire in Physical Activity

Academic journal article The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Development and Validation of the Theory of Planned Behavior Questionnaire in Physical Activity

Article excerpt

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is one of the main theoretical models in the study of the different variables, which influence in the practise of physical activity. The aim in this study was to develop a questionnaire based on TPB in physical activity context providing evidence for the validity of the obtained measures. The instrumental project included three independent studies. The first study entailed the construction and qualitative assessment of the items. In the second study, the analysis of factorial structure was performed by means of exploratory measures, and it showed that the reliability of measures was adequate. The third study provided evidence on the dimensionality of the scale. The confirmatory factorial analysis guaranteed the stability of factorial structure proposed by the TPB and provided evidence for the internal validity of the inventory. Moreover, this study provided evidence of its external validity.

Keywords: theory of planned behavior, physical exercise, instrumental study, validation.

La Teoría de la Conducta Planeada (TCP) es uno de los modelos teóricos más empleados para conocer las diferentes variables que influyen en la realización de ejercicio físico. El objetivo en este trabajo fue elaborar un cuestionario basado en la TCP en el contexto del ejercicio físico y aportar evidencias sobre la validez de sus mediciones. El trabajo instrumental incluyó tres estudios independientes. El primer estudio consistió en la elaboración y evaluación cualitativa de los ítems. En el segundo estudio se analizó la estructura factorial mediante procedimientos exploratorios y se mostró que la fiabilidad de las mediciones era adecuada. El tercer estudio aportó evidencias sobre la dimensionalidad del inventario. El análisis factorial confirmatorio avaló la estabilidad de la estructura factorial propuesta por la TCP, así como aportó evidencias de validez interna del instrumento. También se aportan evidencias de su validez externa.

Palabras clave: teoría conducta planeada, ejercicio físico, estudio instrumental, validación.

(ProQuest: ... denotes formula omitted.)

According to the latest information from the World Health Organization (WHO), the majority of the adult population is either sedentary or not sufficiently active (WHO, 2002; 2004). In the case of the European Union, two-thirds of the adult population do not receive the recommended levels of physical activity. Spain would be between the European countries whose populations exercise less, where only 25% of adults can be considered sufficiently active (Sjöström, Oja, Hagströmer, Smith, & Bauman, 2006; WHO, 2006). Moreover, many people who begin exercise programmes abandon them after short periods of time and their inactivity returns within the first six months (Marcus et al., 2000; Sniehotta, Scholz, & Schwarzer, 2005). It has been sufficiently demonstrated that regular physical exercise plays an important role in combating stress and as a factor in improving a person's quality of life. There is extensive literature indicating that regular exercise is an effective preventive strategy against non-communicable diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, colon cancer and osteoporosis, among others (Blair & Brodney, 1999; Taras, 2005). These noncommunicable diseases are those responsible for the largest percentage of morbidity and mortality in developed countries like Spain, and represent 60% of the world's total mortality and 47% of its morbidity (WHO, 2004). Nevertheless, exercising regularly does not only have beneficial effects upon physical health; vast research endorses the benefits of physical exercise in different areas of psychological wellbeing: it improves subjective health, moods and emotion (Biddle, Fox, & Boutcher, 2000; Netz, Wu, Becker, & Tenebaum, 2005), reduces clinical depression (Lawlor & Hopker, 2001), diminishes levels of anxiety and stress (Jiménez, Martínez, Miró, & Sánchez, 2008) and increases self-esteem (McAuley, Mihalko, & Bane, 1997). …

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