Academic journal article ABNF Journal

Correlates of Physical Activity and the Theory of Planned Behavior between African American Women Who Are Physically Active and Those Who Are Not

Academic journal article ABNF Journal

Correlates of Physical Activity and the Theory of Planned Behavior between African American Women Who Are Physically Active and Those Who Are Not

Article excerpt

Abstract: Many people have positive intention to engage in physical activity but fail to act. In general. Physical activity (PA) levels among Americans are declining. However, when compared to all other racial groups, middle aged African American women (AAW) have the lowest rate of PA participation. The lack of physical activity has dire illness consequences for AAW. Despite significant efforts to increase physical activity to levels that benefit health, the need to understand successful translation of intention to engage in physical activity, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control is warranted in order to design theoretically derived culturally tailored interventions to increase physical activity participation among middle aged AAW. Moreover, there is a paucity of studies that use theoretical underpinnings to elucidate the differences between middle aged AAW who are physically active and those who are not physically active. Therefore, the Theory of Planned Behavior's (TPB) measuring the constructs of intention, subjective norm, attitude, and perceived behavioral control was used to guide the design of this study. One-hundred-fiftythree respondents completed the socio-demographic profile, a Theory of Planned Behavior Questionnaire (TPBQ), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The Pearson 's Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient indicated the highest correlation between intention and attitude r (137) = .740, ? < .001. The correlation between intention and perceived behavior control was r (137) = .546, ? < .001; intention and physical activity r (137) = .439, ? < .001; attitude and perceived behavior control r (137) = .487, ? < .001 ; and attitude and physical activity r (137) = .429, ? < .001 demonstrated a moderately strong positive relationship. Subjective norm and perceived behavior control demonstrate the smallest correlational significance r(137) = .264, ? <.001. Multiple regression analysis revealed attitude towards physical activity, and perceived behavior control for physical activity were statistically and clinically significant predictors of physical activity among the middle-aged African American women in this study.

Key Words: Intention, Physical Activity, Theory of Planned Behavior, African American, Middle- Aged, Female, Correlates.

Regular physical activity (PA) is considered the cornerstone of health promotion and disease prevention. Decreased physical activity is recognized as a major contributing factor in obesity and obesity- related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus type ? (DM-II) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010b). According to the Oklahoma State Department of Health, 65% of adults in the state are overweight or obese, comprising more than six out of ten adults aged 20 years and older (Oklahoma Department of Health and Human Services [OKDHHS], 2008; Oklahoma State Board of Health [OKBH], 2006). However, efforts to increase physical activity participation have fallen short, especially among overweight persons (CDC, 2010a). Seven of every ten Americans who die each year, or more than 1 .7 million people, die of a chronic disease (CDC, 2010b). The consequences of obesity result in an increased risk of disease and disability including an increased risk of depression, coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, type II diabetes and dislipidemia (CDC, 2010a). Moreover, according to the United States Department of Health and Human Services' (USDHHS) 2010 Report on Obesity; obesity and its health consequences are amenable to modest changes in physical activity (CDC, 201Od). Physical activity also reduces the risk of premature death and disability from obesity and obesity-related health consequences (Carroll, Blanck, Serdula, & Brown, 2010; CDC, 2010d; Fullick, Grindey, Edwards, Morris, Reilly, Richardson, & Atkinson, 2009), and there is a direct correlation between physical activity levels and preventable deaths in co-morbid conditions (CDC, 2010b). …

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