Academic journal article Pakistan Historical Society. Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society

Public Opinion in Pre-Modern Times: Muhammad Jauna Bin Tughluq - the Genesis of a Zalim Sultan: Part III

Academic journal article Pakistan Historical Society. Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society

Public Opinion in Pre-Modern Times: Muhammad Jauna Bin Tughluq - the Genesis of a Zalim Sultan: Part III

Article excerpt

Sources and Chronological Issues

Hijri dates

639 Death of Oktay Mongol.

655-8 Hulägü was active after the death of Mangü in the Näsiri period (Sultan Näsir bin Iltutmish 1236-46 A.D.).

664 Possible year of birth of Tughluq [Ghâzî Malik/Ghiyäth ai-Din].***1

666-96 Mongol disunity in the west with Kublä'i in control in China etc. The Mongol leader Dasu Khan was active in Central Asia during the Jalâli period (Jala! al-Din Khalji 1290-96).

680 (1281 A.D.) Earliest possible date of arrival of Tughluq and his brothers in Delhi Sultanate.2

683 Takudar took the name of Ahmad upon conversion to Islam and became îlkhân in Iran; he was later succeeded by Arghün, an ardent Buddhist.

684 Probable year [1285] of Barani's birth.3

689 (1290 A.D.) Possible date of birth of Muhammad Jaunä bin Tughluq.

691 Gaykhatu of Iran introduced paper currency and tried to enforce it aggressively but had to abandon the project after six months.

694 Death of Kublä'i Khan, ruler of China. The Iranian link with China and the central Mongol khanate was broken; henceforth the ïlkhanï title [meaning vice-khän] was abandoned.

695 A disturbed political situation persisted in the ïlkhanï region till this year. Ghäzän Khan now came to power [9 Nov. 1295]. This also brought an end to the Buddhist and Christian contest for influence in Iran.

696 (1296 A.D.) Earliest possible date of Tughluq' s appointment to Depälpür.

To-716 Qutlugh Khwäjah and Iqbäl Mandah were active to the west of the Sultanate.

700 Mongols ravaged Persia.4

703 (1303 A.D.) Mongols ravaged Persia.

Latest possible date of arrival of Tughluq, Rajab and Abu Bakr in the Delhi Sultanate.

704 Ghäzän Khan, the Muslim Mongol ruler of Iran, died at the age of 31; prepared legal codes, instituted reforms and appears to have been a model administrator.

705 A 17 year old Jaunä could have been impressed by the findings of Sharf Qä'ini as 'Ala al-Dnr s assessor of lands, he may also have been critical of his price control.

Perhaps the marriage of Rajab to Bïbî Nä'ilah took place this year.5 Tughluq could have been the mnqti' of Depälpür for about a decade at this time.

707 Date of birth of Firüz Shäh bin Rajab (later Sultan Firüz Shäh Tughluq).

710 'As a family member of a mid level amir, Jaunä would have assisted his father and uncle, Rajab in running the iqtä'(s) assigned to them.

At about 20 years of age, Jaunä may have come to stay in Delhi and seek his own place in the hierarchy of the court and capital. Since he is said to have enjoyed the company of Sa'd Mantaqï, a rationalist fallower of Ibn Taymiyyah, at an impressionable age; his father would have been in Depälpür at this time, people of Delhi may have known him 15 years before he became the heir-apparent.

Uljä'itü, who succeeded Ghäzän Khan, was his brother. He appears to have experimented extensively with his faith. Having been a Christian in his youth, he converted to Sunnï Islam and in this year he became a ShP ah.

711 'Isämi, author of the Futüh al-Salätin was born.6

716 Jaunä was probably 27 or 28 years old at the time of 'Ala al-DIn Khalji's death.

As a competent son of a competent father and a well accomplished and learned young aristocrat, Jaunä may have impressed the youthful Sultan Qutb al-Dïn Khalji (1316-20); horsemanship helped make him atnïr-i akhür and/or harïd mumälik.

Uljä'itü Khudäbandah, the Mongol Shí'ah ruler of Iran died; he was succeeded by Abu Sa'id.

718 Yasur, a Mongol ruler, had conquered Ghaznin in this year and ruled most of the regions of Afghanistan; he was followed by Kobak, brother of Ahsan Baku.

Ghiyäth al-Dîn's expedition, said to be directed toward Ghaznin, during the reign of Mubarak Khalji could have taken place to stem the tide of Yasur's conquest.

If Jaunä had not been forced to think of matters of state and court during the times when Shahâb al-Dïn "Umar and Malik Nä'ib Käfür"s* episodes were taking place because he had no direct exposure, the assassination plot on Mubarak Khalji and his reaction would have made Jaunä conscious of the nature of court intrigues. …

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