Academic journal article Education Research International

Self-Regulated Learning in the Classroom: A Literature Review on the Teacher's Role

Academic journal article Education Research International

Self-Regulated Learning in the Classroom: A Literature Review on the Teacher's Role

Article excerpt

Daniel C. Moos 1 and Alyssa Ringdal 1

Recommended by Bracha Kramarski

1, Department of Education, Gustavus Adolphus College, Mattson Hall, 800 West College Avenue, Saint Peter, MN 56082, USA

Received 18 March 2012; Revised 23 May 2012; Accepted 23 May 2012

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Introduction

Empirical research has supported the long held assumption that individual differences exist in how students learn. Recent methodological advancements have allowed educational research to examine not only what students learn, but also how they learn. Moos and Azevedo, for example, have used a think-aloud protocol to capture the dynamic nature of how individual students use strategies, monitor emerging understanding, and make plans during learning. The think-aloud has provided rich data, as evidenced by the following excerpt from one of their studies [1]. This study provided process data on how students learn about a conceptually complex science topic. The regular font indicates the student's thoughts as she thinks aloud, whereas the italicized font indicates reading from the material during the learning task.

I am going to start with the circulatory system just because I am already there...and I'm just reading the introduction...circulatory system...also known as the cardiovascular system and it deals with the heart...it transports oxygen and nutrients and it takes away waste...um, it does stuff with blood and I'm kind of remembering some of this from bio in high school, but not a lot of it.

Reads: The heart and the blood and the blood vessels are the three structural elements and the heart is the engine of the circulatory system, it is divided into four chambers.

I knew this one, two right and two left...the atrium, the ventricle and the left atrium, and the left ventricle...okay start the introduction [of the heart], just kind of scout it out real quick...and there's a section called function of the heart...and it looks like it will give me what I need to know...um...introduction, oh that's just basic stuff that we've been doing...

Reads: Structure of the heart has four chambers...

We did that...

Reads: The atria are also known as auricles. They collect blood that pours in from veins...

So, it looks like the first step is atria in the system and then the veins.

Though this segment is a small snapshot of the student's learning process for this particular task (see [2] for the complete data), it is clear that she was actively engaged in the learning process. She monitored the relationship between the content and her prior domain knowledge (i.e., "I am kind of remembering some of this from bio in high school"), while also using appropriate strategies. Even within this short learning segment, the student engaged in these monitoring processes and used strategies at multiple points (i.e., "We did that..." and "So, it looks like the first step is atria..."). This student's active engagement was not observed with all the participants in this study, as demonstrated by the following excerpt from another participant who was asked to learn the same material in an identical context as the above student.

I am going to the introduction...

Reads: Circulatory system, or cardiovascular system, in humans, the combined function of the heart, blood, and blood vessels to transport oxygen and nutrients to organs and tissues throughout the body and carry away waste products...

I'm going to take notes...transport oxygen...nutrients...to organs and tissues and carry away waste products.

Reads: Among its vital functions, the circulatory system increases the flow of blood to meet increased energy demands during exercise and regulates body temperature. In addition, when foreign substances or organisms invade the body, the circulatory system swiftly conveys disease-fighting elements of the immune system, such as white blood cells and antibodies to regions under attack. …

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