In this article we reviewed research on leisure motivation. We started with a brief review of the history of leisure motivation and then reviewed research on leisure motivation scales and leisure constraints negotiation. Next, we considered the relationship between leisure motivation and culture in terms of cultural, self-construals, and cross-cultural factors. In this review we found that, developmentally, the study of leisure motivation is at a point of coming of age. Finally, we highlighted critical challenges future researchers will face, including understanding leisure motivation within the context of an individual's experience, investigating the complex relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and studying the relationships between leisure motivation and other factors that affect participation.
Keywords: leisure motivation, intrinsic motivation, culture, leisure constraints negotiation.
Broadly construed, leisure motivation research can be defined as the study of psychological and sociological reasons for participating in leisure activities. It includes examining why individuals become involved in various leisure activities and patterns as well as how leisure is related to intrinsic motivation, constraints negotiation, and culture. In this review, we focus on leisure motivation scales and leisure constraints negotiation, the relationship between leisure motivation and culture, and the cross-cultural study of leisure motivation. We start with a brief discussion of die history of leisure motivation. Next, we examine several leisure motivation scales, which have been developed by previous researchers. We then review the nature of the relationship between leisure motivation and leisure constraints negotiation, and consider how culture affects leisure motivation. Lastly, we draw some conclusions regarding the progress of leisure motivation.
A Brief History of Leisure Motivation
Leisure motivation can be defined as a need, reason, or satisfaction that stimulates involvement in a leisure activity (Crandall, 1980). Originally, leisure motivation was thought to comprise two types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic.
Intrinsic motivation theory has been applied to diverse areas of leisure behavior, such as personality-situation interaction (Iwasaki & Mannell, 1999), recreational sport participation (Alexandris, Tsorbatzoudis, & Grouios, 2002), personally salient activities (Waterman, 2005), and leisure with a close friend (Walker, 2008). Extrinsic motivation theory has been applied to diverse areas such as academic achievement (Hayenga & Corpus, 2010) and physical activity (Dacey, Baltzell, & Zaichkowsky, 2008).
During the past two decades, leisure motivation research has begun to take on a central role in leisure studies. Exhaustive categories for describing leisure motivation were developed in the 1980s. Crandall (1980) developed 17 motivational categories and items that were considered to be important for leisure. In the 1990s, Crandall's Leisure Motivation Scale was applied to research on vacations (Lounsbury & Polik, 1992) and tourism (Ryan & Glendon, 1998).
We are, however, entering an era when leisure motivation is beginning to be embraced by those researching leisure constraints negotiation (Hubbard & Mannell, 2001; Lee & Scott, 2009) and culture (Walker, 2009; Walker & Wang, 2008). Developmentally, leisure motivation has reached a stage in its development where it has come of age. However, as we will discuss below, there are a number of challenges that those conducting research on leisure motivation need to pay attention to if this field is to thrive in the coming decade.
Leisure Motivation Scales
The Leisure Motivation Scale (Beard & Ragheb, 1983) has been utilized in all kinds of settings in order to understand leisure motivation. After rigorous testing, a comprehensive list of 48 leisure motivations was developed by Beard and Ragheb. …