Academic journal article Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Is the Web as Good as the Lab? Comparable Performance from Web and Lab in Cognitive/perceptual Experiments

Academic journal article Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Is the Web as Good as the Lab? Comparable Performance from Web and Lab in Cognitive/perceptual Experiments

Article excerpt

Published online: 25 July 2012

# Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2012

Abstract With the increasing sophistication and ubiquity of the Internet, behavioral research is on the cusp of a revolution that will do for population sampling what the computer did for stimulus control and measurement. It remains a common assumption, however, that data from self-selected Web samples must involve a trade-offbetween participant numbers and data quality. Concerns about data quality are heightened for performance-based cognitive and perceptual measures, particularly those that are timed or that involve complex stimuli. In experiments run with uncompensated, anonymous participants whose motivation for participation is unknown, reduced conscientiousness or lack of focus could produce results that would be difficult to interpret due to decreased overall performance, increased variability of performance, or increased measurement noise. Here, we addressed the question of data quality across a range of cognitive and perceptual tests. For three key performance metrics-mean performance, performance variance, and internal reliability-the results from selfselectedWeb samples did not differ systematically from those obtained from traditionally recruited and/or lab-tested samples. These findings demonstrate that collecting data from uncompensated, anonymous, unsupervised, self-selected participants need not reduce data quality, even for demanding cognitive and perceptual experiments.

Keywords Web-based testing. Cognition. Visual perception. Face recognition

Introduction

The emergence of the Web as a medium for conducting behavioral experiments has led to unprecedented opportunities for collecting large and broadly generalizable data sets with minimal resource investment (Buhrmester, Kwang & Gosling, 2010; Reips, 2000, 2007). However, while the validity and reliability of Web-based data have been demonstrated for many questionnaires (Buchanan, 2007; Gosling, Vazire, Srivastava & John, 2004; Reips, 2007), the validity of timed, performance-based, and/or stimulus-controlled experiments collected via the Web is less well established.

The question of data quality is increasingly critical. Behavioral research has typically relied on highly selected and homogeneous samples that constrain generalizability (Henrich, Heine & Norenzayan, 2010). Self-selected Web samples, on the other hand, tend to be much more diverse in terms of age, education, socioeconomic status, and geographic location (Gosling et al., 2004). In addition, Web-based testing allows researchers to locate and study individuals with rare characteristics (e.g., Duchaine, Germine & Nakayama, 2007; Germine, Cashdollar, Düzel, & Duchaine, 2011). Indeed, the last several years have seen a rise inWebbased experiments across fields that rely on specific sample characteristics, including psychopathology (Germine & Hooker, 2011; Kendler, Myers, Potter & Opalesky, 2009), genetic epidemiology (Kendler et al., 2009), and behavioral genetics (Haworth et al., 2007; Wilmer et al., 2010).

A major issue that has yet to be comprehensively addressed outside of the self-report/questionnaire literature is whether data collected from self-selected samples (especially those that are uncompensated, anonymous, and unsupervised) can be comparable to data gathered in lab-based settings. A lack of tangible incentives could result in careless responding, lack of focus, or even deception (Kraut et al., 2004). In addition, differences between participants in their levels of technical expertise, the computer systems that they use to access the Internet, and other variables could disproportionately impact measurement accuracy or reliability in self-selected Web samples relative to lab samples (Buchanan, 2007; Buchanan & Smith, 1999).As a result, researchers doingWeb-based experiments can encounter skepticism from reviewers and editors regarding the reliability and validity of Web data (Gosling et al. …

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