Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

A Novel Spectrophotometric for the Determination of Cephalosporins Using 8-Hydroxy-1, 3, 6-Pyrenetrisulfonic Acid Trisodium Salt (HPTS) as a Chromogenic Reagent

Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

A Novel Spectrophotometric for the Determination of Cephalosporins Using 8-Hydroxy-1, 3, 6-Pyrenetrisulfonic Acid Trisodium Salt (HPTS) as a Chromogenic Reagent

Article excerpt

Abstract

A simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method has been proposed for the determination of three cephalosporins, namely; cefixime (cefi), cephalexin (ceph) and cefotaxime sodium (cefo) in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is based on the derivatization of cephalosporins with 1-hydroxy-3, 6, 8-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt, (HPTS). The optimum experimental conditions have been studied carefully. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration of 0.1-0.6, 0.3-1.8 and 0.5-3 µg/mL for cefi, ceph and cefo, respectively.

The detection limits were found to be 0.03, 0.14 and 0.15 µg/ mL for cefi, ceph and cefo, respectively, with a linear regression correlation coefficient of 0.99902, 0.99728 and 0.99892 for cefi, ceph and cefo, respectively. And recovery in range form 97.57-102.45, 91.61-95.6 and 96.25-103.85 for cefi, ceph and cefo, respectively. Effects of pH, temperature, standing time and HPTS concentration on the determination of cefi, ceph and cefo, have been examined. This method is simple and can be used for the determination of cefi, ceph and cefo in pharmaceutical formulations.

Keywords: Cephalosporins, 1-hydroxy-3, 6, 8-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt, (HPTS), Spectrophotometric analysis, Pharmaceutical analysis.

1.Introduction

Cephalosporins anti bacterial are commonly used to control gram positive and gram negative activity. Cephalosporins are the second most important blactams after penicillins for treating infectious diseases (Adkinson,1998). Many of these manifestations, such as urticaria and exanthema, are cutaneous, but anaphylactic reactions have also been reported (Pumphrey Davis, 1999).

Chemical structure of cephalosporins drive from the 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) composed of a β-lactam ring fused with a dihydrothaizine ring (Fig. 1), but differ in the nature of substituent at the 3- and/or 7-positions of the cephem ring (Delgad and Wilson; 2004; Dollery,1999).

Many methods have been described for the quantitative determination of cephalosporins included spectrophotometry (Saleh et al., 2001;2003; Ayad et al., 1999; Ahmed et al., 2011, spectrofluorometery (Elbashir et al., 2012; Aly et al., 1996). High performance liquid chromatography (Misztal, 1998; Moore, 1991; Baranowska et al., 2006; Tsai and Chen 2006; e iego lar a, et al., 2005; Sørensen and Snor, 2000; Chen et al., 2003 ) , potentiometry (Lima et al., 1998) and voltammetry anet al., 2000). These methods were time-consuming, tedious, and dedicated to sophisticated and expensive analytical instruments. Spectrophotometric methods are the most convenient techniques because of their inherent simplicity, high sensitivity, low cost, and wide availability in quality control laboratories. Unfortunately, the spectrophotometric methods that have been reported for determination of cephalosporins in their pharmaceutical formulations were associated with some major disadvantages such as the lack of selectivity, tedious extraction procedures and time-consuming. The official procedures in pharmaceutical preparations utilize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (United States Pharmacopoeia 2008). Therefore, the development of new alternative spectrophotometric method for the determination of cephalosporins that can overcome the disadvantages of the existing methods was very essential.

The pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 1-hydroxy-3, 6, 8-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt also known as pyranine (HPTS) has distinct absorption band in the visible light region, and has thus utilized in many aqueous-phase CO2 optical sensors (Weigl and Wolfbeis, 1995; Wolfbeis et al., 1998; Neurauter et al., 1998; Ertekin et al., 2003; Malins , and MacCraith, 1998; Von Bultzingslowen et al., 2002; Nivens et al., 2002; Naga et al., 1998). However this is the first time that HPTS used as chromogenic reagent for determination of cephalosporins in their pharmaceutical formulations, HPTS contains three sulfonate groups at the positions, 1, 3, 6 which make it suitable for nucleophilic substitution reactions with cephalosporins, therefore in this work a rapid spectrophotometric method for determining the content of cefi, ceph and cefo in pharmaceutical formulations which is based on the reaction of HPTS with cephalosporin was reported. …

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