Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

Enhancing the Tutor Model of Intelligent Tutoring Systems

Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

Enhancing the Tutor Model of Intelligent Tutoring Systems

Article excerpt


Intelligent Tutoring Systems are systems that have general features that can communicate with a student, define the student knowledge and abilities, and can change the teaching strategy. Teaching strategies employed in intelligent tutoring systems, as usual, are not based on old and recent developments in pedagogical science and ignoring both general principles of teaching and learning theory and many classical teaching methods suggested by practicing teachers. This paper describes the use of traditional theories of teaching and learning, in terms of enhancing the tutor model of intelligent tutoring systems.


Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), theory of teaching and learning, teaching strategy, tutor model.


One of the most prospective and advanced directions in the field of designing of computer-based tutoring is the development and designing of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS).

Knowledge about a student is one of the knowledge types that are used by a tutor in the teaching process and are necessary for designing "intelligent" tutoring systems. To support "intelligent" teaching process a tutor uses special knowledge of three main types: subject matter, teaching strategy, and student. To these special types of knowledge we can add the student ability to communicate: to tell, to show something to a student, to understand his answer. In ITS the necessary knowledge is explicitly marked and presented, as a rule, with the help of various methods and technologies of knowledge engineering. Using this knowledge ITS are capable to implement various functions of a tutor (to assist in the process of task accomplishment, to identify the reason of student's mistakes, and to choose the optimal educational step).

Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) are systems that have universal features, which can communicate with a learner, can define the student knowledge and abilities, and can change the teaching method so it can be personalized. ITS attempt to capture a method of teaching and learning represented by one-to-one human tutoring interaction.

A review of the recent literature on ITS shows that not much has changed since the 80's with regard to the structure, design or methods used to create intelligent tutors (Anderson et al., 1985; Capell and Dannenberg, 1993; Mark and Greer, 1993; Murray, 1999; Poison and Richardson, 1988; Shute and Psotka, 1996; Sleeman and Brown, 1982; Wenger, 1987). Generally, intelligent tutors have the following components:

* domain model

* student model

* tutor model

* interface

The domain model refers to the topic or curriculum being taught, which contains facts, procedural, and other knowledge of a subject matter (Siemer and Angelides, 1998; Thaw and Somnuk, 2005). The student model refers to the student or the user of the ITS, which is constantly updated in the teaching course in accordance with the changing characteristics of a student it reflects. Such a model is used by all system modules to adapt their work to a particular student (Beck et al., 1996; Siemer and Angelides, 1998). The tutor model refers to the methods of instruction and how the material shall be presented, which is presents the knowledge of an expert-pedagogic about organization and support for the task-oriented teaching process. Based on teaching strategy and taking into account a student model the tutor model provides for the management of teaching activity (Beck et al., 1996; Freedman, 2000; Thaw and Somnuk, 2005). The interface allows communication between the student and the other models of the ITS, which is containing the knowledge that is necessary to support interaction with a student. This model provides for the communication with a student in a convenient and understandable form and also converts questions and answers of a student in the form accepted by the other models.

A student learns from an ITS by solving problems. …

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