Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Investigation of MONE Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006) According to Children Rights*

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Investigation of MONE Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006) According to Children Rights*

Article excerpt

Abstract

In Turkey, the preschoolers are being schooled under the guidelines of MONE (Ministry of National Education) Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006). The aim of this research is to investigate how children's rights are involved in this program. In this qualitative research based on document analysis, program book and Teacher Guide were analized using content analysis method. Frequency of children right categories (survival, development, protection, participation) in each sentence is coded and presented in tables and graphics. Findings indicate that development and participation rights take part in the program mostly and the large part of development rights is right to a quality public education. Protection rights are merely mentioned. Although there are a few findings that conflict with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, it is clear that the program is not based on the convention. Restructuring is needed for upbringing children with human right culture.

Key Words

Children Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, MONE Preschool Program.

Human rights are the rights to which people are entitled simply because they are human beings. According to Kuçuradi (2007), human beings are entitled to some rights just by being human beings and that human rights is the idea that human beings should be treated in a way to help actualize their structural opportunities.

Human rights are based on the idea that every individual are born free and as equals in dignity. Realization and protection of these rights are ensured by international law, created by interstate organizations (Gündem Çocuk Dernegi, 2009).

Children have children's rights, in addition to hu- man rights because they need human rights tailored into their special needs and vulnerabilities (Bedard, 1996). The need for special treatment of children has been stated in Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1959. On the 20th November 1989 United Nations ratified the Convention on the Right of the Child (CRC) as a means to guarantee children's rights (UNICEF, 2009).

CRC is a document of consensus. The standards of CRC were negotiated by governments, nongovernmental organizations and people of different professions over a 10-year period. It aims to balance protection and freedom of the child and cultural and universal values.

41 of the 54 articles of the convention are on creating opportunities for children to live under best conditions possible and to actualize themselves. The rest 13 articles are about how this convention is to be implemented; how the procedures shall take place and how they shall be reported.

CRC, which is ratified by 193 countries except Somalia and USA, is the most widely and rapidly ratified human rights treaty in the history. It is legally binding and has a monitoring mechanism. According to this, States parties have to submit regular reports on the status of children's rights in their countries to The Committee on the Rights of the Child, an internationally elected body of independent experts. The Committee reviews and comments on these reports and encourages States to take special measures and to form special institutions for the promotion and protection of children's rights (UNICEF, 2011).

CRC provides a framework for looking at the needs of children through the perspective of children's rights. Thus, it is not a mere list of rights but a catalogue of domains in which States should recognize their obligations towards children and it provides guideliness for all actors (Qudenhoven & Wazir, 2006).

Republic of Turkey, by signing the convention, has accepted to provide every child in the country with the rights indicated in the convention without any exceptions and makes the rights of the child widely known not only by adults but also by children themselves. Article no. 90 of the constitution too, indicates that under the conditions in which national law contradicts convention's articles about enacted fundamental rights and freedoms, principles of the convention will be taken into consideration. …

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