Academic journal article Career Development Quarterly

Validation of the Career-Related Parent Support Scale among Chinese High School Students

Academic journal article Career Development Quarterly

Validation of the Career-Related Parent Support Scale among Chinese High School Students

Article excerpt

The Career-Related Parent Support Scale (CRPSS; Turner, Alliman-Brissett, Lapan, Udipi, & Ergun, 2003) was translated and modified to form the 24-item Chinese version of the scale. As in the case of the original CRPSS, the Chinese version includes 4 subscales (Instrumental Assistance, Emotional Support, Verbal Encouragement, and Career-Related Modeling). The Chinese version of the CRPSS was validated in this study with a sample of Hong Kong high school students N = 677). Reliability analyses showed that the total scale and subscales were internally consistent. The results of the exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the Chinese version of the CRPSS provided adequate indicators of Chinese adolescents' perceptions of parent support for their career aspirations.

Keywords: parent support, Career-Related Parent Support Scale, Chinese, high school students, Hong Kong

Empirical studies have indicated that aspects of parenting, including cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors, play an important role in the process of adolescent career development (Bryant, Zvonkovic, & Reynolds, 2006). For example, in addition to providing financial support, parents often set high, but realistic, standards for school achievement that are believed to motivate their children toward success. In Paa and McWhirter's (2000) study, for instance, both fathers and mothers were perceived as the strongest influences on career expectations. Parents are thus regarded as a significant source of support and encouragement in adolescents' educational and career pursuits (McWhirter, Hackett, & Bandalos, 1998). Their behavior nurtures adolescents' beliefs in their own abilities to successfully perform a given task or behavior (Hall, 2003).

Bandura (1977) theorized that a person's beliefs about his or her own self-efficacy are developed through exposure to and reflection on four sources of information: (a) performance accomplishments (i.e., experiencing success when performing particular tasks or skills), (b) vicarious experiences or modeling (i.e., observing other people's performance attainments), (c) social persuasion (i.e., receiving encouragement and support from others), and (d) emotional arousal (i.e., experiencing pleasant or unpleasant emotional and physical sensations while performing particular tasks). Empirical studies have revealed that these sources of self-efficacy are related to social efficacy (Anderson & Betz, 2001), career search self-efficacy (Bacanli, 2006), mathematics self-efficacy (Lent, Lopez, & Bieschke, 1991), and college self-efficacy (Solberg, O'Brien, Villareal, Kennel, & Davis, 1993).

Lent et al. (1991) explored the relationship of the four information sources to mathematics self-efficacy and found that performance accomplishments constituted the most influential source of efficacy information. The finding supported Bandura's (1977) hypothesis that personal mastery experiences are the most influential in developing self-efficacy. Personal performance experiences were also cited as the most common and influential source of self-efficacy beliefs by the college students in Lent, Brown, Gover, and Nijjer's (1996) study.

Luzzo, Hasper, Albert, Bibby, and Martine (1999) investigated the effects of performance accomplishments and vicarious learning experiences on academic self-efficacy and career interests among college students who had not yet made their career choices. The authors reported the superiority of performance accomplishments in increasing mathematics/ science self-efficacy. However, vicarious learning experiences had significant effects on career interests only when combined with performance accomplishment activity (Luzzo et al., 1999).

Parents, as the primary providers of various sources of experience, have been linked to the development of adolescents' career interests (Turner, Steward, & Lapan, 2004), career efficacy (Turner & Lapan, 2002), career choice, and career aspirations (Flores & O'Brien, 2002). …

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