Academic journal article Contemporary Nurse : a Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession

The Impact of Nursing Leadership and Management on the Control of HIV/AIDS: An Ethnographic Study

Academic journal article Contemporary Nurse : a Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession

The Impact of Nursing Leadership and Management on the Control of HIV/AIDS: An Ethnographic Study

Article excerpt

This study sought to investigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on the practice of primary care nurses employed in Comprehensive Primary Health Care Centres in Jordan. It is argued that HIV/AIDS is a global epidemic and that the burden of this disease can only be reduced if communities are familiar with the disease etiology and methods of preventing the spread of the disease (Fauci, 1999; Hassan & Wahsheh, 2011; Ouzouni & Nakakis, 2012; Petro- Nustas, 2000). The World Health Organisation maintained that health care workers, including nurses who are engaged in practice at the primary care level have the capacity to influence community behaviors and therefore improve population health (World Health Organisation, 1998).

BACKGROUND

Jordan is a small country in the Middle East. The total population of Jordan exceeded 6113.0 million with a 2.2% population growth rate per 1000 at the end of 2010 (Department of Statistics, 2010). To provide equitable services throughout the country the Ministry of Health (MOH) established primary health care centres (PHCC) in rural and urban areas. These centers are classified according to the range of service provided. The Comprehensive Primary Health Care Centres (CPHCCs) offer the broadest levels of service, the PHCC offer a mid-range level of services and the Preferable or Village Health Care Centres (VHCC) provide minimal levels of primary care. In 2010 there were 84 CPHCCs, 368 PHCCs and 227 VHCCs providing health services that include primary medical care, maternity and maternal child health care, dental therapy and a limited range of diagnostic services (Ministry of Health [MOH], 2011). The concentration of services is in the CPHCC's with limited levels of service delivery increasing with rurality. Medical doctors, nurses, midwives, dentists, technicians and a range of administrative staffare employed in the CPHCCs.

LITERATURE REVIEW

The practice of nurses globally is changing. Increasing consumerism, technological innovations, new managerial policy and the evidence based practice revolution are factors identified as impacting on the role nurses play and will play in the future (Williams & Sibbald, 1999). Leininger (1995, p. 27) asserts that 'nurses in the 21st century will be deeply involved in providing competent, sensitive, and responsible care to individuals, families, and cultures from different communities and institutions'. The preparation of nurses and the manner in which they will keep their practice current are issues being debated by the profession. Professional nurses are accountable for their practice and therefore are obligated to ensure that their practice is current (Chiarella, 2002; Daly, Speedy, & Jackson, 2009).

Nurses practice in dynamic environments in which physical and drug and surgical therapies change daily and understanding of the psychosocial factors impacting on health are constantly being uncovered (Daly et al., 2009; Roberts & Taylor, 2002). It is accepted by the profession of nursing that employers can and should play a significant role in supporting nurses expand their knowledge and skills.

Jones and Cheek (2003) challenge nursing managers to be innovative and proactive in identifying nurses' knowledge and skill needs and in developing and implementing appropriate programs. In environments characterized by shrinking resources and rigid structures the provision of effective professional development, training and education programs is difficult but not impossible.

Nursing leaders in any health institution must provide clear direction that allows for the defining of nurse's roles within the organization. Williams and Sibbald (1999) contend that nursing leaders are instrumental in the setting of professional boundaries, a strategy they consider limits workload overlap and ensure practice is undertaken within legally endorsed parameters.

Castille (1999) argues it is important that staffis aware of professional responsibilities and organizational expectations from the commencement of employment. …

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