Academic journal article Review of Management

A Study of Determinants of Training Effectiveness in Kedah State Development Corporation

Academic journal article Review of Management

A Study of Determinants of Training Effectiveness in Kedah State Development Corporation

Article excerpt

Introduction

Employee training is an essential element to increase efficiency and improve job performance Training is the process of providing employees with specific skills or helping them correct deficiencies in their performance (David, 2010). For example, new equipment may require workers to learn new ways of doing the job or a worker may have a deficient understanding of a work process. In both sides, training can be used to correct the skill deficit. Training is focus on the current job, the scope of training is on individual employees (Robert, 2010). It is also job specific and addresses particular performance deficits or problems. Training tends to focus on immediate organizational needs and fairly quick improvement in workers' performance. It strongly influences present performance levels.

A fundamental objective of training is the elimination of performance problems or improvement of job performance. To be successful, a training program must have clear stated and realistic goals (David, 2010).These goals guide the program's content and determine the criteria by which its effectiveness can be judged. For example, management cannot realistically expect that one training session will make everyone an accounting expert. Such an expectation guarantees failure because the goal is unattainable. If the goal is to improve specific skills, the training needs to be targeted to those skill areas. In contrast, the company's training goal may be to provide employees with a broader understanding of the organization (Luis, 2010).

Research Objectives

The research objectives are:

* To determine the influence of training types on training effectiveness in Kedah state development Corporation Company.

* To determine the influence of training environment on employee's training effectiveness in Kedah state development Corporation Company.

* To determine the influence of work environment on employee's training effectiveness in Kedah State Development Corporation.

* To determine the effect of employees' personal characteristics (age, gender, marital status, education level and length of working in current job) on training effectiveness in Kedah state development Corporation Company.

Understanding of Training Effectiveness

In this dynamic and ever changing environment, organizations both public and private must increase the importance on employees' learning and development of skills. This shows that put investment in employee training program can bring employers a favorable return but rarely is the effectiveness of this expenditure assess. Studies suggest that many training and development activities are implemented on blind faith with only the hope that they will yield resist (Arthur, Bennett, Edens & Bell, 2003, Broad and Newstrom, 1992; Robinson and Robinson, 1989). Seldom are training programs rigorously evaluated to determine their effect on the behavior or job performance of participants. One of the more optimistic estimates suggests that no more than 15 percent of learning transfers to the job (Cromwell and Kolb, 2004).

Other studies of transfer rates find they typically average only in the 10 to 40 percent range (Baldwin and Ford, 1988; Burke and Hutchins, 2007; Fitzpatrick, 2001; Ford and Kozlowski, 1997). Therefore, it is important to explore methods to encourage transfer of learning in order to achieve greater training impact on human resource practices. Previous studies (Mayfield, 2011) suggested that training effectiveness is a good predictor of employee training. This association suggests that when employee have been trained in a training program, the training effectiveness is likely to be followed by job behavior (Pelham, 2009). Previous studies also suggest that demographic variables such as age, degree held, and experience were related to training impact in some studies (Devins, Johnson and Sutherland, 2004). The focus of previous work has been on the relationships between training effectiveness and employees' demographic variables. …

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