Academic journal article Review of Management

Job Stressors, Supervisory Support and Work Outcomes among Egyptian Managers

Academic journal article Review of Management

Job Stressors, Supervisory Support and Work Outcomes among Egyptian Managers

Article excerpt

Human Resource Management Research in Egypt

The economies of the Middle East tend to be under-performing (Ali, 2005, 1999) in recent times. In addition, relatively little organizational and management research has been carried out in the Middle East (Budhwar & Mellalhi, 2007). Middle Eastern countries also differ from each other in potentially significant ways.

Although Egypt has several schools of business management and many professors of human resource management (HRM) and organizational behavior (OB), relatively little HRM and OB research has been undertaken in Egypt. There are several reasons for this (Attiyah, 1993, 1992). It is usually easier to undertake more quantitative research in finance, logistics and marketing. Many Egyptian academics are not trained to carry out and report research findings, and are not interested or motivated to do so. Managers and their employing organizations are not supportive of organizational research making it difficult to gain access to research sites and participants. In addition, managers are often fearful of having their subordinates describe their work experiences for fear that these data might reflect badly on the managers.

This picture seems to be slowly changing however. As the Egyptian economy remains stagnant, there is increasing interest in exploring new avenues to improve performance. In addition, more researchers in Egypt are obtaining the necessary research skills to carry out studies, and more schools of business management have been created, many having their own academic journals.

Studies of HRM and OB have been recently carried out in Egypt (Burke & El-Kot,2010,2009), El-Kot & Leat, 2008; El-Kot & Leat, 2007; Hamlin, Nassar & Wahba, 2010) using concepts and measures developed in North American and Europe producing findings generally consistent with conclusions reported in these previous studies. The present study is part of an ongoing research program intended to shed light on effective management practices in Egyptian private and public sector organizations.

Job Stressors Research

Job stress research has been ongoing for about 50 years in the US, and the effects of job stressors on both individuals and organizations has been considered in a large number of countries world-wide since then (e.g., Spector, Cooper, Sanchez, Siu, Salgado & Mau, 2004; Perrewe, Hochwater, Rossi, Wallace, Maignan & Castro,2002; Hobfoll, 1998; Narayanan, Menon & Spector, 1999). There is considerable evidence that the experience of job stressors has negative consequences for both individuals and organizations. (Barling, Kelloway & Frone, 2005; Cooper, Quick & Schabracq, 2009;Schabracq, Winnubst & Cooper, 2003 : Antoniou & Cooper, 2005). Individuals reporting higher levels of job stressors generally indicate lower levels of job satisfaction, more absenteeism, lower job performance, greater intent to quit, and lower levels of psychological and physical health (Shirom, 2003). And when individuals experience higher levels of job stressors, their organizations report higher turnover, more workplace errors and injuries, and poorer quality service and products. There has also been a growth of interest in workplace stress and well-being across cultures. A Special Issue of Cross Cultural Management (Burke 2010 contained five papers that examined workplace stressors in either single non-American or non-European countries or in several different countries. Spector and his colleagues (Spector, Cooper, Poelmans 2004) considered work-family stressors, working hours and well-being in a number of countries. And Bhagat and his colleagues (Bhagat, Krishnan Nelson 2010) examined the influence of coping styles and decision latitude on stressor, strain and would come in sic national contexts.

Job stressors have been classified into various categories by different investigators. For example, Cooper and Marshall (1976) proposed five categories of job stressors: stressors intrinsic to the job, from one's role in the organization, career development, relationships with others, and organizational structure and culture. …

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