Academic journal article Geopolitics, History and International Relations

Weathering Forms at Barqoq Monument, Old Islamic Cairo, Egypt

Academic journal article Geopolitics, History and International Relations

Weathering Forms at Barqoq Monument, Old Islamic Cairo, Egypt

Article excerpt


Barqoq Islamic monument was built 1284 a, c., at old Islamic Cairo, east or Cairo, Egypt. Severe damage has been observed in the foundations of Barqoq monument. There are many weathering forms are observed such as flaking, crumbling, salt efflorescence's, granular disintegration, bad weathering, rock meal, as well as different types of cracks. These weathering forms are considered as the diagnostic features of salt weathering and could related to the uprising effect of the subsoil water through the monument foundations, the subsoil water is about 2m. Below the ground exchange the deteriorated parts by durable reconstruction rocks, isolate the monument from subsoil water using water proof material, and use suitable poultices to repair the marble are the main recommendations.

Keywords: weathering, hazards, archeological sites


Weathering is a diverse process that has implications for a wide range of earth and surface processes. These processes include the deterioration of stone monuments and buildings, and the occurrence of hazardous events e.g. slope failure due to weathered slope material and the presence of clay minerals. The in-place breakdown of geologic material by physical, chemical, and biological processes is a necessary precursor to most forms of erosion, sediment transport, and denudation. This present study aims at assessing the weathering forms in these sites, in order to protect our monument from heritage. Egypt has a great number of archeological sites, most of these sites suffered from weathering, these process may be a result of many factors such as the effect of the affect of near surface water with its dissolved salts, through the salt weathering process. In view of various threats to the monuments in Egypt, Barqoq Monument case study, there is need for environmental conservation. There is a need for general survey of sources of environmental hazards (subsurface water, air moisture, wind erosion, air pollution, seismic shaking, human interference and touristic activity.

Barqoq Islamic monument was built 1284 A.D. at old Islamic Cairo, Islamic monuments and mosques located in 30° 2' 52"N and 31°15' 36"E. Figure 1 on each side of El Moez Street, Walls and gates that witnessed many important events throughout history surrounded Cairo.

The main propose of these study aims at determining the main geological and Geomorphological setting in the area of study as will as estimation the relationship between rock types and weathering forms.

Geomorphological setting: Abdel Daiem, A. A. (1971), and Armanious M. G. (1989) studied the Geomorphological setting in greater Cairo, which includes the area of study.

The main geomorphic features are presented in Figure 2:

* The structural Plateau; underlain by Limestone rocks and dissected by a number of faults running mainly in the north-south east direction.

* The structural Plain; underlain by sandstone Strata. The surfaces are dotted by isolated hills.

* The Narrow Piedmont Plain; occupies the strip lying between the cultivated land and the foot slopes of structural plateau and the structural plain that is essentially underlain by down wash deposits.

* The Flood Plain; it is related to River Nile and underlain by fine silt deposits.

* Drainage Lines; conspicuous basin which follows mainly the faults line of weakness. All such basins, having a catchment areas are located in the plateau of the Nile Basin and the Delta.

Extensive damage has been observed in foundation of Barqoq monument and affect all construction rocks but with different rates and types. Damage survey was carried out using Fitzner classification, 2002. The limestone blocks damage is represented by back weathering due to loss of material, rounding, notching, flakes, and the outermost parts are soft and crumbled easily by fingers figs 3-9. Also, rock meal is observed on the ground. The granitic pillars suffered from granular disintegration Fig. …

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