Academic journal article Education Research International

Training Self-Regulated Learning in the Classroom: Development and Evaluation of Learning Materials to Train Self-Regulated Learning during Regular Mathematics Lessons at Primary School

Academic journal article Education Research International

Training Self-Regulated Learning in the Classroom: Development and Evaluation of Learning Materials to Train Self-Regulated Learning during Regular Mathematics Lessons at Primary School

Article excerpt

Recommended by Susanne Narciss

1, Department of Educational Research, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany

Received 1 June 2012; Revised 27 July 2012; Accepted 13 November 2012

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Introduction

According to Boekaerts et al. [ 1], the concept of self-regulation is used in a variety of psychological fields (see also [ 2]). In research on educational settings, self-regulated learning [ 3] is classified as an important factor for effective (school-based) learning and academic achievement (e.g., [ 4- 6]).

Regarding theories and models of self-regulation, there are different approaches to describe the construct. Some models regard self-regulation as consisting of different layers (e.g., [ 7]), while other models emphasize the procedural character of self-regulation and describe different phases (e.g., [ 8- 10]). In our study, we refer to the self-regulation model developed by Zimmerman [ 8], who defines self-regulation as a cyclical process that "refers to self-generated thoughts, feelings, and actions that are planned and cyclically adapted to the attainment of personal goals" (page 15). The model distinguishes between three learning phases: the forethought or planning phase, the performance or volitional control phase, and the self-reflection phase. For each of these phases, two components are uniquely characterized which are again represented by specific processes.

As components of the forethought phase , both the analysis of the given task (task analysis) and self-motivation beliefs are relevant variables in the beginning of the learning process. Task analysis includes processes of goal setting and strategic planning. According to Locke and Latham [ 11], goal setting has been defined as a decision upon specific outcomes of learning or performance. Highly self-regulated students organize their goal systems hierarchically and tend to set process goals in order to achieve more distal outcome goals [ 8]. Furthermore, strategic planning is a process relevant to the forethought phase--and closely related to goal setting--because after selecting a specific goal, students engage in planning how to reach it [ 9, 12]. Indeed, these processes are quite useless if students are not motivated or cannot motivate themselves to use corresponding strategies. Therefore, self-motivation beliefs, such as self-efficacy, outcome expectations , intrinsic value, and goal orientation, are relevant motivational variables of the forethought phase and they affect direction, intensity, and persistence of students' learning behavior [ 13, 14]. Self-efficacy refers to "personal beliefs about having the means to learn or perform effectively" [ 15, page 17], whereas outcome expectations refer to the judgments of the consequences that behavior will produce [ 16]. In line with Deci and Ryan [ 17], intrinsic value is defined "as the doing of an activity for its inherent satisfaction rather than for some separate consequences" (page 56). Regarding goal orientation, there is a first distinction between a mastery goal construct and performance goal construct (e.g., [ 18]): whereas mastery goals (also called mastery orientation) are focused on learning and self-improvement, performance goals (also called performance orientation) represent a more general concern with demonstrating ability and trying to do better than (or to not appear worse than) others [ 19, 20]. There is a distinction between two different types of performance goals: performance-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals [ 18]. Students can be motivated to try to outperform others in order to demonstrate their competence (performance-approach) or to avoid failure in order to avoid looking incompetent (performance-avoidance). With respect to self-regulated learning theory, a positive influence of mastery goals on the different components of self-regulated learning was found [ 10]. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.