Academic journal article The ICHPER-SD Journal of Research in Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport & Dance

Validation of the Consumer Values versus Perceived Product Attributes Model Measuring the Purchase of Athletic Team Merchandise

Academic journal article The ICHPER-SD Journal of Research in Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport & Dance

Validation of the Consumer Values versus Perceived Product Attributes Model Measuring the Purchase of Athletic Team Merchandise

Article excerpt

Abstract

Various consumer values and perceived product attributes trigger consumptive behaviors of athletic team merchandise (Lee, Trail, Kwon, & Anderson, 2011). Likewise, using a principal component analysis technique on a student sample, a measurement scale was proposed that consisted of nine factors affecting the purchase of athletic team merchandise. Using confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group invariance technique, the factorial structure and measurement equivalence of the model (included a new factor) was validated on a more generalizable sample in the current study. The overall model fit the data well. The overall findings of the current study contribute to the literature by exploring and filling the gap between existing studies and more generalizable data found in the present study.

Key words: invariance analysis, measurement equivalence

In an effort to understand motivations for the purchase of consumer goods, researchers have often classified consumers by the degree of similarity in their consumption values (Pitts & Woodside, 1984; Richins & Dawson, 1992). By the same token, other researchers indicated that comprehending what determines product consumption is clarified when both consumer values (Richins, 1994) and perceived value of a product are explicated (Sweeney & Soutar, 2001). Lee, Trail, Kwon, and Anderson (2011) argued that this distinction is vital but often neglected in the domain of sport. Lee et al. rationalized the importance of this distinction by stating "the perceived value of a product is often predicated on the consumer values for that individual, and thus these concepts are frequently confused within the research on these topics" (p. 90). They used additional schemes to distinguish consumer values from perceived product attributes in that the former is internal and is typically generalizable across various purchase situations, while the latter is product specific and is typically contingent on the product itself. Based on the relevant literature, it is worthwhile to develop a consumer model that incorporates both consumer values and product attributes. It is also important to gain a better understanding of the psychometric properties of consumers and target markets that actually purchase athletic team merchandise.

Scholars have argued that tradition associated with a sport team is a point of attraction that may exert sport consumption (Greenwell, Fink, & Pastore, 2002; Zhang, Pease, Hui, & Michaud, 1995; Zhang, et al., 1997). Surveying spectators from a National Basketball Association (NBA) team, Zhang et al. (1995) found that tradition was related to past NBA game attendance. In the context of minor league hockey game, a similar finding was discovered in that home team factor (e.g., history of home team) contributed to 15% of the variance in game attendance. This result was supported in Greenwell et al. 's (2002) study where they found that 16% of the variance was associated with customer satisfaction, which is often considered as a precursor to consumption in the marketing literature (e.g., Ryu, Han, & Kim, 2008). Using general professional sport consumers, Zhang, Lam, and Connaughton (2003) further supported the relationship between tradition and sport consumption behaviors (i.e., attendance and media). Based on the literature, it can be theorized that tradition should be considered as an important factor triggering sport consumption activity such as fans purchasing licensed merchandise of their favorite team.

Consumer Values (CV) and Perceived Product Attributes (PPA)

Consumer values are beliefs that guide an individual's purchase behavior (Rokeach, 1973) and diverse consumers are likely to have different preference criteria that are parallel to their preexisting values. However, it is uncertain whether values themselves are sufficient in explaining consumption behaviors. The perceived value of an object, on the other hand, is the "consumer's overall assessment of the utility of a product (or service) based on perceptions of what is received and what is given" (Zeithaml, 1988, p. …

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