Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Teaching Physical Education: The Usefulness of the Teaching Games for Understanding and the Constraints-Led Approach

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Teaching Physical Education: The Usefulness of the Teaching Games for Understanding and the Constraints-Led Approach

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

For several years to this part, the perspective how teacher falls within the teaching-learning process, tends to adjust to the new research currents and social context. If we associate the one curriculum recommended in which the teacher have more opportunities to apply different teaching methods, with the theoretical assumptions on the ecological teaching models, an opportunity window opens to enhance students' learning of diverse ways, in order to adapt the didactic and pedagogical practice with the students context.

Therefore, ecological teaching models as Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) or Constraints-led Approach may allow new opportunities to the teacher provide for their students new sources of learning and motivation (Clemente & Mendes, 2011). Despite of recently researches based their works on two models relatively separate; the fact is that the Teaching Games for Understanding may benefit from a partnership with the Constraints-led Approach, in order to promote the effectiveness of ecological teaching models (Clemente, 2012).

Therefore, the present work proposes to analyze the range of the Teaching Games for Understanding and Constraints-led Approach to the quality of physical education. Additionally will be analyzed the pertinence of these kinds of teaching models to the learning and motivation of the students.

This paper will be organized as it follows: i) Internal Logic of Sports Invasion Games: The Real Importance of Sports Tactics (section 2), where will be discussed the essence of invasion sports games and the importance of strategy and tactics for student learning; ii) Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) (section 3) where will be descript the teaching model and their opportunities to improve the quality of didactic and pedagogical processes; iii) Constraints-led Approach (section 4), where will be analyzed how this model can complement the TGfU model; and iv) The effects of ecological teaching models for the students motivation (section 5), where will be analyzed the positive effects of ecological teaching models for the students motivation and self-determination.

2. Internal logic of sports games: The real importance of Sports Tactics

The essence of collective sports games is characterized for opposition rapport between two teams coordinated for retrieve, maintains and moves the ball until they reach the score zone and complete the respective finalization (Gréhaigne & Godbout, 1995). In line with the above, Metzler (1987) describes the essence of sports games such as the possibility of solving at action a set countless of unforeseen and simultaneous problems with relating order. This problem-solving happens simultaneously during offensive and defensive phases, depending of the ball possession. In fact, it is intended to emphasize the relational and dynamic nature of sports games where the complexity related to intra-and inter-team endures continuously over match, collectively adapting to the constraints imposed by time and opposition. Effectively, the game contains within itself a complex relationship dependent on the cooperation among teammates and opposition with opposite team (Gréhaigne, Godbout & Bouthier, 1999). Thus, the systematic observation of sports games will include two major dimensions: i) the game, as regard of power balance between teams; and ii) the team, related to the relationship ability of the teammates, i.e., the network. (e.g., Gréhaigne & Godbout, 1995; Gréhaigne, Bouthier & David, 1997; Gréhagine, Godbout & Bouthier, 1999).

Given the above, the dynamics of the game must be resolved through tactical and strategic processes in order to increase the proficiency of the internal team to solve the constraints imposed by the opposition (Clemente, Couceiro, Martins & Mendes, 2012). The strategy and the tactic have always had relevance to forms of opposition and cooperation of the human species (e. …

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