Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Physical Activity and Fibrinolytic Response

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Physical Activity and Fibrinolytic Response

Article excerpt

Introduction

Blood fibrinolysis is an important physiological mechanism, is clot searching system that eliminates intravascular clots ensuring the blood vessels passage (Chandler, Schwartz, Stratton, & Vitiello, 1996; Chatzikonstantinou, 1993; El-Sayed, Ali-El-Sayed, & Ahmadizad, 2004; Smokovitis, 1992; Takada & Takada, 1993). Clot fiber dissolution occurs with the action of a proteolytic enzyme, a serinoproteasis, plasmin (Arnout, Hoylaerts, & Lijnen, 2006; Stassen, Arnout, & Deckmyn, 2004; Van den Burg, Hospers, Mosterd, Bouma, & Huisveld, 2000).

During clot formation along with other plasma proteins a large quantity of plasminogen is embedded in it. However, there are substances in the blood which activate plasminogen and convert it into plasmin (Guyton, 1984). The activation is done by specific enzymes activity known as plasminogen activators. Cells release plasminogen activators to an active state, ready to activate plasminogen (Arnout et al., 2006; Stassen et al., 2004; West, 1985). The major is the tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) (Collen, 1987; Saksela, 1985; Takada & Takada, 1993). t-PA is synthesized and secreted primarily by endothelial cells of the vascular wall and other cells as well (Ridker, Brown, Vaughan, Harrison, & Mehta, 2004; Smokovitis, 1992; Takada & Takada, 1993; Todd, 1959; Trakatellis, 1991).

The regulation of fibrinolysis is influenced by both the production and secretion of plasminogen activators and by certain plasminogen activators inhibitors. The principal inhibitor is plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) (Gardikas, 1989; Saksela, 1985; Smokovitis, 1992; Takada & Takada, 1993; Van den Burg et al., 2000; West, 1985). t-PA and PAI-1 are primarily responsible for blood fibrinolytic activity regulation. There is a dynamic balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The disruption of this balance against fibrinolysis can lead to atherosclerosis and clot formation, which can lead to vascular ischemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and pulmonary embolism (Astrup, 1956; Aznar & Esteles, 1994).

Method

The literature data was primarily collected through computer and manual searches of primary sources (e.g., journal articles, theses). For the computer search, online data bases of Pub Med, Google Scholar and Sport Discus were used to retrieve available English language publications, entire articles and abstracts, related to fibrinolytic activity, using keywords such as haemostasis, fibrinolysis, coagulation, plasminogen activators, plasminogen activators inhibitors, physical activity and exercise.

The results of this literature study are described in the present review, in the part of the role of exercise on fibrinolytic activity. Finally, a conclusion is presented and recommendations are provided for further investigation.

The role of exercise on fibrinolytic activity

Physical activity results in increased exercise capacity and physical fitness, which can lead to many health benefits. Regular exercise helps to prevent cardiovascular diseases, since the attributable to exercise biological changes have been suggested as possible mechanisms by which exercise contributes to lower risk of cardiovascular lesions, fewer cardiac events and lower mortality rates for coronary heart disease. Physical activity improves cardiac risk factor profiles and may, also, lead to an improvement in endothelial function (Appenzeller & Atkinson, 1983; Haskell, Stefanick, & Superko, 1988; Morris, Clayton, Everitt, Semmence, & Burgess, 1990; Paffenbarger & Hyde, 1980; Sherman, 2000; Tsopanakis & Tsopanaki, 1990). Physical activity makes the blood more fluid and less prone to clots, causing haematological changes such as increased fibrinolysis and reduced viscosity of blood that may protect against thrombosis and increase athletic performance (Eichner, 1986). Howerer, the abstention from exercise is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular complications development (Van den Burg, Dooijewaard, Van Vliet, Mosterd, Kluft, & Huisveld, 1994). …

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