Academic journal article Journal of Multidisciplinary Research

Revisiting Sport Brand Personality: Scale Development and Validation

Academic journal article Journal of Multidisciplinary Research

Revisiting Sport Brand Personality: Scale Development and Validation

Article excerpt


Comprehensive brand personality conceptualizations may not be applicable to a single category goods or service brand personality because such approaches are too broad and overstated. Furthermore, different brand categories need to be specified and conceptualized according to their own distinctive features. With those observations in mind, as well as the absence of a valid and reliable sport brand personality measurement tool, the purpose of this study was to create a sport brand personality scale centered on sports apparel and footwear. Using Korean sport consumers, six sport brand personality factors were identified: Competence, Creativity, Ruggedness, Excitement, Sincerity, and Energy. A valid and reliable sport-centric brand personality scale also was developed. The instrument includes a total of 18 items, with each of the six brand personality factors consisting of 3 items. Included in the discussion section is an explanation of the research implications, managerial applications, and limitations of the developed brand personality scale.


sport brand personality, personality traits, creativity, footwear, sports apparel, sport consumers


Sport organizations throughout the world have given greater priority to brand management strategies, investing hundreds of millions if not billions of dollars on such activities. The European soccer club Manchester United, for example, enjoys the most lucrative jersey sponsorship deal in soccer history. The deal with Chevrolet (a U.S. automaker) is worth more than US$559 million over 7 years (Cutler, 2012). Additionally, Nike, the sport apparel and footwear giant, spent more than two billion dollars on the marketing and promotion of its products in 2010. To put that in perspective, Under Armour, a rival to Nike, generated more than a billion dollars in revenue that same year (a first for the company in its 15 year history), and yet its total revenue was still less than half of what Nike spent on promoting its brand alone (Burke, 2011).

Along with sport teams and firms, sport scholars also have embraced brand management strategies, devoting increasing amounts of attention toward understanding how to build strong, favorable, and distinctive brands in order to positively affect sport consumer attitudes and patronage behaviors (e.g., Bauer, Stokburger-Sauer, &Exler, 2008; Gladden &Funk, 2002; Ross, 2006). In particular, an area of branding research that has both piqued the interest of and proven challenging for sport scholars to comprehend sufficiently is brand personality. A key reason brand personality research has proven challenging for sport researchers is that, despite several research attempts, a reliable measure of brand personality has yet to be produced. Braunstein and Ross (2010), for example, developed an adapted sport brand personality scale (BPS) that was met with mixed success as only two of the six dimensions were found to be reliable (i.e., good estimates in both Cronbach's alpha and average variance explained).

Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to improve upon past research efforts and develop a scale that can be used to measure brand personality in the context of sport products (i.e., sport apparel and footwear). In doing so, this study not only creates a brand personality measurement tool but also highlights the benefits and inherent limitations of a general scale development approach to sport brand personality research. Preceding the research method and results sections of this study is a brief review of the relevant brand personality literatures as well as a more detailed explanation of how this study makes an important contribution to sport marketing research and practice.

Literature Review

The brand personality concept tends to be depicted as a key measure for understanding consumer perceptions of and attitudes toward brands, in addition to serving as a communication guideline for brand strategists to reference when engaging consumers (Aaker, 1996). …

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