Academic journal article Austrian Journal of South - East Asian Studies

Community Tenure Rights and REDD+: A Review of the Oddar Meanchey Community Forestry REDD+ Project in Cambodia

Academic journal article Austrian Journal of South - East Asian Studies

Community Tenure Rights and REDD+: A Review of the Oddar Meanchey Community Forestry REDD+ Project in Cambodia

Article excerpt

Tenure rights over land, forest, and carbon have become a contentious issue within REDD+ implementation across the tropics because local communities could be excluded from REDD+ benefits if land tenure or use and access rights are not clear. This study aims to understand and assess tenure arrangements under the first REDD+ demonstration project in Cambodia, the Oddar Meanchey Community Forestry REDD+ Project. In particular, the study explores the following questions: (1) How are tenure rights arranged in the Oddar Meanchey REDD+ Project? (2) Does the tenure regime recognise the rights of local communities to their land and its associated resources? (3) What kind of institutions are put in place to support tenure rights of local communities in the project? The author conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and complemented the analysis by participant observation and a review of policy documents and secondary literature. The major finding of this study is that the local communities in the project are still given rights to use and access forest resources, although carbon rights belong to the government. While the government retains ownership over carbon credits, it agreed that at least 50 percent of the net revenue from the sale of carbon credits will flow to participating communities.

Keywords: Cambodia; Carbon Rights; Community Forestry; REDD+; Tenure Rights

Besitzrechte an Land, Wald und CO2 sind zu einer umkämpften Angelegenheit in der REDD+ Implementierung in den Tropen geworden. Diese Studie versucht die Besitzregelungen im ersten REDD+ Demonstrationsprojekt in Kambodscha, dem Oddar Meanchey Community Forestry REDD+ Project, zu verstehen und zu bewerten. Die Untersuchung analysiert dabei insbesondere folgende Fragen: (1) Wie sind Besitzrechte im Oddar Meanchey REDD+ Projekt geregelt? (2) Erkennt das Besitzsystem die Rechte von lokalen Gemeinschaften an ihrem Land und den dazugehörigen Ressourcen an? (3) Welche Institutionen werden geschaffen, um die Besitzrechte von lokalen Gemeinschaften im Projekt zu stärken? Dazu führte der Autor semi-strukturierte Interviews mit zentralen InteressensvertreterInnen, wandte teilnehmende Beobachtung an und nahm eine Analyse von politischen Rahmenbedingungen und Sekundärliteratur vor. Das Hauptergebnis der Studie ist, dass lokale Gemeinschaften im Projekt nach wie vor Nutzungs- und Zugangsrechte zu Waldressourcen haben, während die Regierung über die CO2-Rechte verfügt. Auch wenn die Regierung Eigentümerin der CO2-Zertifikate bleibt, wurde vereinbart, dass 50 Prozent der Nettoeinnahmen aus dem Verkauf der Zertifikate an die teilnehmenden Gemeinschaften fließen.

Schlagworte: Besitzrechte; CO2-Rechte; Community Forestry; Kambodscha; REDD+

Introduction

Deforestation and forest degradation account for nearly 20 percent of the total annual anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which is more than the entire global transportation sector (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007). As a result, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) plays a crucial role in mitigating climate change. At the 13th Conference of the Parties (COP13) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2007, the Bali Action Plan highlighted the importance of policy approaches and positive incentives for reducing emissions and introduced REDD as the financial mechanism to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (Huettner, Leemans, Kok, & Ebeling, 2009; Miles & Kapos, 2008). At the COP14 of the UNFCCC in Poznan, Poland (2008), the concept of REDD+ was introduced. Adding to REDD, REDD+ includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forest, and enhancement of forest carbon stock. This discussion was continued at the COP15 in Copenhagen in 2009 (UNFCCC, 2009). Even though the Copenhagen Accord is not an internationally binding agreement, the parties agreed on the urgent need to mobilise financial resources from developed countries for REDD+. …

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