Academic journal article Researchers World

Relationship between Transactional, Transformational Leadership Styles, Emotional Intelligence and Job Performance

Academic journal article Researchers World

Relationship between Transactional, Transformational Leadership Styles, Emotional Intelligence and Job Performance

Article excerpt


Claims about the significant relationship or the positive influence of emotional intelligence on performance are numerous, in both the commercial and scientific literatures. However, despite the intense interest of the media and business consultants in the field of emotional intelligence or EI, and its increasingly popular use in organizations, there is little empirical evidence to support these claims. In this study, we investigated the relationships between EI, leadership styles among 192 managers. Emotional intelligence was evaluated employing the Schutte emotional intelligence scale and while the Bass and Avolve leadership styles scale was also adapted. Finally, job performance was measured by immediate managers. Results showed that emotional intelligence was positively correlated with emotion in job performance. Surprisingly, it also appears that transformational leadership style was correlated with job performance. These results suggest that emotional intelligence may provide an interesting new way of enhancing productivity through job performance.

Keywords: Emotional intelligence, leadership style, Transformational Leadership style, job performance.


An examination of the literature in the fields of emotional intelligence and leadership styles finds that the two areas have been independently linked to job performance. For example, researchers have examined the links between emotional intelligence and job performance (e. g. Stubbs, 2005; Sy, Tram & O'Hara, 2006; Bipath, 2007; Rieck, 2008), and also between leadership styles and performance (Bycio et al., 1995; Howell & Avolio, 1993).

A few studies have been conducted on the effect of these factors in other non-bank organizations and separately. However, this study, discusses these factors simultaneously. This research study is an attempt to fill gaps in the literature. Additionally, no other research has utilized both EI and leadership styles for managers within the same research study in relation to performance or additionally compare both independent variables in the same study with managers' workplace performance reviews (in a banking setting). Therefore, this study may be a stepping stone to further enhance the field of emotional intelligence and leadership styles.


Meyer and Salovey (1997) first developed the Theory of Emotional Intelligence. According to them, emotional intelligence is "the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth (p.5)".


Many studies on the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance have been conducted, especially in the service sector. It has emerged as one of the most important disciplines in management. Studies conducted by Hafey (2003), Seval Fer, (2004), Kernbach and Schutte (2005), Kiely (2005), Rao (2006), Mccallin and Bamford (2007), Susan and Pappas (2007) conclude that emotional intelligence is considered an important tool for increasing service performance and team effectiveness. EI skill is necessary for success in the business environment. It helps employees in learning service skills that ultimately result in job success and lead to employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in the service sector as well. The delivery and performance of services can be enhanced by linking them with the emotional intelligence skills.


Some researchers (Iverson & Roy, 1994; Sergiovanni & Corbally, 1984; Smith & Peterson, 1988) believe that there are certain characteristics leaders must have in order to create employee job satisfaction and commitment: (a) Empowerment and (b) clear vision. In order for transformational leaders to be effective, their followers must share their vision for the organization and be willing to put the goals of the organization before their own personal goals and objectives (Hater & Bass, 1988; Archbold, 2004). …

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