Academic journal article Journal of Community Positive Practices

Immigrants Communities from Italian Society

Academic journal article Journal of Community Positive Practices

Immigrants Communities from Italian Society

Article excerpt

Abstract: International migration is one of the characteristic phenomena of the contemporary world. Several countries in Western Europe, like Germany, France, England, Spain, Italy and others, were experienced in the last two decades, successive waves of immigrants, whom social and cultural integration difficulties raised many communities human adoption. For example, more than 7.5% of Italy's current population (60.6 million people) is represented by foreigners, who are concentrated in metropolitan areas in the North and Center of the country. This study, conducted from a sociological perspective gives us significant information on the characteristics of current Italian society, the distribution by region of the Italian population living in this country, the reasons for the presence of immigrants in Italy, the geographical area and country origin of the foreign citizens, their age group and sex, the dynamics of migration flows, etc. The largest foreign community in Italy is made up of Romanian, Albanian and Moroccan. The main objective pursued in our research was to see a picture of the immigrant population in Italy and to know its structure based on relevant indicators. The underlying assumption, from which we started, is that the process of immigration is, in social terms, one of the most important processes that define the Italian society at present, a society undergoing a difficult period, because of the consequences of financial crisis. Our conclusions are based on quantitative analysis of data collected by statistical method. Other interpretations are based on appeal to the historical method and the comparative method.

Key-words: Italian society, the structure of immigrants, immigrant population, immigration reasons, migration flows

Introduction

In the present days, mankind is facing some global problems, such as: underdevelopment in several human societies, poverty, illiteracy, expansion of diseases, pollution, natural disasters, defending peace, international terrorism, consequences of the global economic crisis, migration of people from a continent to other etc.

At the end of 2010, the total number of international immigrants was around to 214 millions, and the country that faced the biggest number of immigrants was the United States of America (International Organization for Migration, 2011, p.115). In Europe, during the last two decades, the Italian society knew a veritable assault of the immigrant flows that has arrived especially for working, completing their families and studying. We mention that other societies (England, France, Germany, Spain) have faced, them too, successive waves of immigrants, whom social and cultural integration generated certain difficulties for the local communities (e.g. ensuring houses for the exceeding population) and for the educational institutions (e.g. acquiring to school the immigrant children, who arrived of different social and cultural environments).

Sociological examination of the immigration phenomenon from Italy is requesting, from one side, to establish the structure of immigrants, and, on the other, to evaluate the different percentages of foreigners. We may conceive the immigrants structure if we are starting from several indicators, such as:

1. distribution on regions of the foreign population from Italy;

2. reasons for the immigrants presence on the Italian territory;

3. geographical area and the departure countries (the citizenship of the immigrants);

4. age, sex and marital status;

5. dynamics of the immigrants flows in different period of times.

The data that we will present in this study are regarding the immigrants who have legal documents for residence (permessi de soggiorno), who are officially registered in Italy, at the beginning by the Statistical Service- Ministry of Interior and, later, by the National Statistical Institute. In this context, we have to mention that the elaboration of a data base for Italian immigrants was first conceived in 1992 by the National Statistical Institute (Istat), which it is a component element of the Sistema Statistico Nazionale. …

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