Academic journal article Pakistan Historical Society. Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society

Tadhkirat Al-Umara'

Academic journal article Pakistan Historical Society. Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society

Tadhkirat Al-Umara'

Article excerpt

Translated, Annotated and Edited by DR. ANSAR ZAHID KHAN



After praising the Almighty Who by one order oiKun* (Be) brought into existence 18000 worlds and after eulogizing the Prophet (£$$) who by one order (fatta-bi'ûnï:** obey me) guided the misguided of the world of astray to the path of right guidance (of obeying Islam):

I come to my object (aim for the work) that (this) slave Kewal Räm s/o Raghünäth Das of bania (yvesh) nation (caste) Agarwäla resident of the qasbah (town) Käsnah province of Shähjähanäbäd (Delhi) whose ancestors had been nurtured by partaking of the salt of the bädshähs of Hindustan and amirs of this noble family, the symbol of khiläfat, during the period of 'atälah (holidays or inactivity) thought that the histories of the prophets, awliyä', caliphs, saläfin, wuzarä', hukamä, 'ulama ', poets and historians of the past of the world had been written down, but there is (a vacant) space for the writing down some of the ahwäl (affairs) of the umarä ' and rajahs of Hindustan. From this (point of view) that in Hindustan bädshähän (kings) who are decorated and to whom applies the title zillulläh (the shadow of Allah) represented by Akbar Bädshäh, Jahängir Bädshäh, Shâhjahân Bädshäh and 'Älamgir Bâdshâh. In fact good points and qualities of these four elements (rulers) entitled them for the caliphate according to the rules of the past caliphs. Therefore, from the Tärikh-i Akbarnämah authored by Shaykh Abu'l Fadl Nagori and the Tärikh-i Iqbälnämah authored by Mu'tamid Khan who after the death of Akbar Bädshäh wrote the account of 50 years of Akbari period on the request of Jahängir Bädshäh and from the Tuzuk-i Jahängiri which was written by that Bädshäh himself and the Tärikh-i Bädshähnämah by Mulla 'Abd al-Hamïd Lâhori and the * The phrase is Kun fayakün ("Be" and it is) and the Qur'änic verse is : Verily when He intends a thing His command is "Be" and it is! - (Al-Qur'än, XXXVI:82).

** Say: "If ye do love Allah follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins for Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful." - (Al-Qur'än, 111:31).

Shähjahännämah of Muhammad Sälih Kamboh both covering the 30 years of Shâhjahân Bâdshâh, the 'Älamgirnämah written by Mirzá Muhammad Kä?im covering the first 10 years and from the Ma'äthir-i 'Älamgirt which was written by Musta'id Khan after the death of 'Âlamgîr covering the events of the 40 years of that just ruler, and affairs and accounts of the great amirs and khäns and the nobles of the governments and renowned rajahs of these four reigns was gathered from these histories and arranged in this (book). (Besides them an account of some khäns with lesser ranks which are not mentioned in the Ma'äthir-i 'Àlamgïrï is taken from the Kalimät-i fayyibät, Raqä'im-i Kirä'im, A'iam Shähnämah, Bädshähnämah, etc. were brought together in one series. The grand khäns from the rank of 9000 to 200 honoured with the title of khan while persons who were not bestowed with the title of khan but enjoyed the rank of 6000 to 100, and the zamindärs (chiefs) and Rajputs and the nobles from the Deccan who joined the service of the Khäqäns and who had the rank of 7000 to 500 were written down in ûiisjarîdah (register or book) arranged alphabetically and written down, as far as possible with research in their nasab (geneology), nation, watan (homeland), mansab, (rank), khitäb (title), khidmät (service), and the year of death with regular chronological order of dates in two bäbs (chapters) dealing with the affairs of the Muslim amirs* and second on the affairs of the Hindu amirs - each was arranged (written) in 1184 H. (1770 A.D.).

*The Persian text of the Tadhkirat al-Umarä' (Portion about the Muslim nobles) was published by the Pakistan Historical Society as vol. I & II in 1986 and 1991 respectively - Ed.

Chapter I

Mentioning those who had the title of räjah, mahäräjah, rana, rä'i-räwat and rä'i-räyän.

Harf Alif-a


The brother of Rajah Bhärmal Kachhwähah, the zamindär (chief or ruler) of Anbar (Amber):

In the beginning of the reign of Akbar he was elevated with a mansab (rank) and the title of räjagi räjä 'i, rank of a rajah). …

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