Academic journal article Asian Culture and History

The Influence of Naqshbandi Sheikhs on Educational Process of Timurid Era

Academic journal article Asian Culture and History

The Influence of Naqshbandi Sheikhs on Educational Process of Timurid Era

Article excerpt


In the ninth century (A.H.) the number of Sufis and their sects increased due to Timurids' attention to Sufis, and as a consequence convents (Khaneqa) became one of the most important economical and political centers. Excessive wealth and spiritual influence of Sufis leaders particularly Sheikhs of Naqshbani kingdom result in Sufism power being twice as much so that, Timurid kings and Sultans used their spiritual influence to legitimize their rules and tried not only to respect and honor them but also, to construct and operate their Khaneqas. Close relationship between Naqshbani's leaders and Timurid Sultans had a great influence on most country's affairs, particularly education and training as most of removal and installations in the field of educational affairs were under their views. In this survey, the impact of Naqshbandi's Sheikhs on educational process during Timurid period was investigated and analyzed by citing library references and implementing analytical-descriptive method.

Keywords: mysticism, Naqshbandieh, Timurid, education

1. Introduction

1.1 Emergence Causes of Mystical Thoughts and Khaneqa Establishment

The most important cause of mystical thoughts emergence should be found in contemporary circumstances. Some experts believe that mystical thoughts began to grow after the failing national uprisings and liberal movements. The frustration of Islam of Omavian and Abbasian which which in turn, resulted in violating deprived people and repressing the intellectual, was one of the most important and main factors of emerging mystical thoughts and Khaneqas establishment (Ravandi, 1997). While the former conquerors were getting accustomed to culture and knowledge of Iran, new nomads arrived and became a catastrophe for Iran; and these successive miseries and failures made Iranian people disappointed. As a direct result of these situations, Khaneqas were more prosperous, and the number and spread of their fans and leaders of these Khaneqa were increased by educated people (Sadri, 1971). Many researchers believe that rising of Mongols results in developing Sufism because distress and confusion were intensified, and following Mongols' invasion, economic, social, cultural and educational structures were changed. From this time onwards, Sufism did not suffice to ecstasy, description, preaching and advice but found a school, and then it was taught in the form of different sciences like words and wisdom. Since then Sufism has captured Persian literature in a strange intensity way and even affected and influenced Islamic culture of Iran (Ravandi, 1997). Most ministers of Ilkhanid period were interested in Sufism so they associated with the foundation centers of Khaneqa. Khawaja Shams al-din Mohammad Joyini. The author of 'Ilkhanid Government' book was one of the ministers who were interested in Sufism. He established a large Khaneqa in Tabriz (Mostoufi, 1960). From the first centuries of Islam, Khaneqa was considered as a place for gathering Sufis and they have done sensual austerity. Those people who were not satisfied with formal sciences, dropped out of schools and searched for certainty light by the guidance of Master. At first, Khaneqas and Sufis angles were as centers for teaching non-book sciences but gradually they were developed as same as schools with particular goals beside the educational systems (Dorrani, 1992).

1.2 Sufism Development

From Saljoghi period till Mongol's attack was prosperous and evolutionary time of Sufism in Iran and many Khaneqas were established across the country. At that time, Khaneqas were regarded as the goal-oriented organizations which that controlled educational methods. In other words, educational system of Khaneqas was such a non-book educational system (Petrushevskii, 1985. These centers had a particular role on Iranian scientific organizations from the seventh century (A.H.) because, on one hand, they were the same as holy shrines which had been protected against invasion and, on the other hand, they had become places for education, discussion, study and maintenance of Iranian cultural resources (Sadri, 1971). …

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