Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Aggression and Peer Rejection among Children with Conduct Disorder

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Aggression and Peer Rejection among Children with Conduct Disorder

Article excerpt

Abstract

Children with Conduct Disorder suffer from aggression and peer difficulties. This study provides an overview of aggression and peer rejection among children with Conduct Disorder worldwide and in Iran. This study is based on researches from library archives specially focused on studies have been done in Iran. First Conduct Disorder, its' prevalence, subtypes, and other comorbid disorders are explained. Next, studies regarding aggression among aggressive children and children with conduct problems are reviewed. In this part, the social cognitive deficits of these children are presented based on the model of Social Information Processing. The study followed by researches about peer rejection among children with CD. In addition studies of children with CD in Iran were reconsidered.

Keywords: conduct disorder, aggression, peer rejection

1. Introduction

Conduct Disorder (CD) is one of the forms of externalizing disorder listed in DSM-IV-TR category among children and adolescents. Control the behavior based on what parents, teachers, or peer to expect is difficult for these children (Oltmanns & Emery, 1995). Conduct Disorder is one of the most prevalence diagnosed disorder that according to DSM-IV-TR reflects as "repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated" (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Aggression toward people and animal, impulsive behavior, deceitfulness, and acting against rules are common among children with CD.

It is reported that this disorder affects between 6% to 16% of boys and 2% to 9% of girls in school-aged children (Pratt et al., 2003). Sarkhel, Sinha, Arora, and DeSarkar (2006) implemented a study in India for the prevalence of CD and reported as 4.58% of boys and 4.5% of girls with CD. This study stated that 36% of these children suffer from CD with mild severity and 64% with moderate severity. The study in Iran by Najafi, Foladchang, Alizadeh, and Mohamadifar (2009) presented the prevalence of behavioral disorders in Shiraz's city. It is revealed that between 1300 boys and girls at elementary school children, 17.8% of them affected by behavioral disorders. In addition, this study explained that 5% of these children affected from CD. Azadyekta (2011) reported that the prevalence of CD in Tehran/Iran is 10.5% among 2016 Primary school students.

Childhood onset type and adolescent onset type are two types of CD according to the classification of DSM-IV-TR. Childhood-onset type of CD is diagnosed when a child under 10 years-old shows at least one of the symptoms listed in DSM-IV-TR for CD. The main symptom of these children is aggressive behavior and poor peer relationship (Raine et al., 2005). When the child does not show any symptoms of CD prior 10 years old and after this age shows at least three symptoms, the adolescent-onset type of CD is diagnosed. Other disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in 50%, oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), anxiety, and depression have comorbidity with CD (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).

Among the types of aggression, it is reported that manifest aggression is more common among children with CD and the prevalence of it among boys is more than girls (Dodge & Pettit, 2003). Two main types of manifest aggression include physical and verbal aggression (Coie & Dodge, 1998).

Coercive style in terms of physical and verbal pattern is common among family members of children with CD in the relationship of parent and child. For instance, these children experience more corporal punishment compare to other children. As a result, they learn to use force in family environment. Furthermore, when they learn aggressive behavior at home and use it in their personal relationship with other, they highly are rejected by them (Henry, Tolan, & Gorman-Smith, 2001).

Social learning of Bandura (1977) supports this study. …

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