Academic journal article Asian Social Science

The Development of a Conceptual Model Promoting Learners' Ownership in an Online Learning Environment

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

The Development of a Conceptual Model Promoting Learners' Ownership in an Online Learning Environment

Article excerpt


The purpose of this study was to explore the development of a conceptual model that promotes ownership in an online learning environment. It proceeds toward building a comprehensive online learning model that illustrates the interrelationship among learning motivation, cognition and meta-cognition. Those components can be employed into strategies to promote the learner ownership that is assumed to be an essential factor influencing learners' achievement. The main methods of the study were literature review about ownership and development research on building of a conceptual model. A conceptual model of learners' ownership in an online learning environment is proposed into integration of three factors of learning motivation, cognition, and meta-cognition and Milner-Bolotin's three categories of ownership (2001), which are composed of personal value, control and responsibility. Since the model is a hypothetical and conceptual, further research for testing its theoretical validity is needed.

Keywords: ownership, conceptual model, online learning

1. Introduction

The fast growing information technology extensively increases online learning environments (OEL) such as e-learning, mobile learning, or smart learning. Although OEL is characterized by being taught anytime, anywhere, anyhow and any content, it poses dangers to learners' experiences like early withdrawal or drop-out from online learning due to poor learning skills or sense of isolation. Thus, it is required that online learners have effective learning skills to proceed responsibly online learning, and then to enable them to become self-regulated learners. In order to help learners effectively in online settings, Milner-Bolotin (2001) suggested learners have ownership to online learning settings, and that there are three categories of ownership to online learning. According to the suggestion, the categories of ownerships are composed of three components. First, finding personal value is about understanding how the knowledge might be useful and can be connected to the acquired knowledge to his/her prior knowledge. Second, feeling in control pertains to learners' involvement in making decisions and being proactive rather than reactive learner. And third, taking responsibility means being accountable for the process of learning as well as the results.

Actually, ownership has been a common concept in many areas like psychology, economics, political science, philosophy, sociology, but it is comparatively a new concept in the field of education and training. With the emergence of constructivism as another epistemology in learning, ownership has also started gaining attention from educational researchers and theorists. Although it has already been initially explored for its potential benefit, further research is still required to conduct its affordances in the aspect of human learning.

On the other hand, Pierce et al. (2003) in their conceptual examination of psychological ownership proposed three human motives that serve as roots of this psychological state: efficacy and effectiveness, self-identity, and having a place to dwell. First, an efficacy and effectiveness can influence desired outcomes in our environment and control object in any way (Furby, 1978). In learning setting, an efficacy and/or effectiveness is also considered to be a very strong determinant to learners' motivation as illustrated in the work of Bandura (1986). It shows that self-efficacy influences on how individuals feel, think, motivate themselves and behave. Thus, it influences learners' choice and the amount of effort that he puts forth and his persistence at a given task. It is assumed that learners with higher self-efficacy would consider a difficult task as a challenge to master rather than treats to be avoided letting them approach learning with higher level of motivation and quickly recover their sense of efficacy after failures.

The second root of psychological ownership is self-identity. …

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