Academic journal article Military Review
Medal of Honor Recipients, 1863-1994: Volume I, Civil War to Nicaraguan Campaign and Volume II, World War II to Somalia
MEDAL OF HONOR RECIPIENTS, 1863-1994: Volume I, Civil War to Nicaraguan Campaign and Volume II, World War II to Somalia, edited by George Lang, Raymond L Collins and Gerald E White. 8% pages. Facts on File Inc., New York. 1996. $99.00 set.
Until the beginning of the 20th century, the US government awarded few federal decorations for individual or group achievement or for service and military campaigns. The few wellknown exceptions were the Navy and Army Medals of Honor, the Presidential Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals (circa 1874) and the Presidential and Department of War Certificates of Merit (circa 1847).
Several campaign and war service medals were created early this century to recognize service during previous conflicts, such as the Indian Campaigns (1866 to 1891), American Civil War (1861 to 1865), Spanish-American War (1898) and International China Relief Expedition (1900). Since then, more than 400 decorations, badges, medals and awards have been created to recognize individual and unit service and merit.
Congress created the Navy and Army Medals of Honor in 1862. The first was awarded in 1863 and was the only medal or decoration awarded for combat gallantry until after 1917. …