Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Investigation of Using Online Video Case Discussions in Teacher Education: Sources of Evidence of Mathematics Learning*

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Investigation of Using Online Video Case Discussions in Teacher Education: Sources of Evidence of Mathematics Learning*

Article excerpt

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to explore pre-service and in-service mathematics teachers' analyses of student learning in a video case of mathematics instruction via an online learning forum. The study was conducted in the context of three different mathematics methods courses in a 4-year college in the Midwestern United States. Twenty-six students (19 undergraduate and 7 master's students) participated in the study. As a course assignment, the participants were asked to watch and discuss a video case of mathematics instruction. During the discussions, the instructor and participants posted 57 online messages in total. To analyze the data, the content analysis technique was employed. As the initial coding framework, National Council of Teacher of Mathematics [NCTM] Process Standards including problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, connections, and representation were selected. The analysis of the data revealed that effective student participation, the importance of communication among the students as well as between the students and their teacher, the necessity of using connections among mathematical ideas, use of manipulative, using what students have already learned in a new situation, and building knowledge through problem solving were identified as evidence of mathematics learning by the participants.

Key Words

Online Discussion, Video Cases, Mathematics Learning, Pre-service Teachers, In-service Teachers, Evidence of Learning.

Case studies have long been employed in teaching in several disciplines such as law, medical education, business, and management (Masingila & Doerr, 2002; Shulman, 1992; Sowder, 2007). Their use in teacher education is also not new (Merseth, 1999) although it became more common in past decades (Darling-Hammond & Hammerness, 2002; Merseth, 1996). Shulman defines case methods as "...the methods of pedagogy employed in conjunction with teaching cases" (p. 19). What makes a case is the knowledge it represents, and the instructive power of a case lies in its structure, purpose, and content (Merseth, 1996). Teaching cases are constructed to be used in teacher education and they describe teaching (Sykes & Bird, 1992). They are opportunities for reflection, and understanding teaching (Merseth, 1996). In other words, cases are seen as a way of learning as they describe teaching, and help teachers with reflecting on teaching. Either they are text-based cases, video-based cases, or multimedia cases; cases are seen as a way of learning as they help teachers with reflecting on teaching.

There are several studies in the literature on the use of cases in teacher education. Some of these studies indicate that cases allow both pre-service and in-service teachers to reflect on student thinking and learning (Masingila & Doerr, 2002), and they are expected to prompt discussion and collaborative reflection (Arellano et al., 2001; McGraw, Lynch, Koc, Budak, & Brown, 2007; Shulman, 1992). Among these studies, Van Es and Sherin's (2010) study investigated teachers' attention to student thinking, and revealed how teachers were developed professionally through the video clubs. This study suggested that through the video club engagement, teachers started to focus more on students' mathematical thinking. In another study (Koc, Peker, & Osmanoglu, 2009), pre-service and in-service teachers with the inclusion of the video case teacher reflected on a video case through online discussions. In that study, Koc et al. concluded that student understanding was among the most discussed topics, and collective engagement of both pre-service and in-service teachers provided a strong support for professional development of teachers. In another study (Osmanoglu, Isiksal, & Koc, 2012) it was found out that when pre-service teachers are provided with an environment to analyze real mathematics classroom videos through online discussions, they can reflect on several issues related to students and to their learning. …

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