Academic journal article Canadian Social Science

Determinant Attributes of City Brand Personality That Influence Strategic Communication

Academic journal article Canadian Social Science

Determinant Attributes of City Brand Personality That Influence Strategic Communication

Article excerpt


This paper examines the determinant attributes of city brand personality that influence strategic communication of Bandar Melaka world heritage city UNESCO. The results will provide insight on the development of a city brand personality scale, that can be applied in the Malaysian context. Based on Aaker (1997), Brand Personality Scale (BPS), the study adjusted the scale used in the Bandar Melaka for strategic communication. The study approaches the issues from several perspectives including the marketing, tourism, strategic management and human communication in Bandar Melaka. It employs to administer the process of structural equation modelling to investigate the causal relationships between the dimensions of city brand determinants and city brand itself for strategic communication. Questionnaire surveys and interviews on measuring the determinants of city brand employs to examine the respondents' perceptions of the dimensions of city brand affected the overall city brand evaluations. Data collects from the internal stakeholders that involving directly or indirectly for planning and developing of Bandar Melaka. The study has found four dimensions of the city brand personality, "Peacefulness", "Malignancy", "Sophistication" and "Uniqueness". The City Personality Scale (CPS) proposes four dimensions with a total of seventeen items can be applied to the communication perspective of city brand in Malaysia. Implications for the stakeholders were discussed. They should consider the relative importance of brand dimensions in their overall city brand evaluations for strategic communication. City brand plays a pivotal role in contemporary strategic communication, and is the subject of much literature, both professional and academic. This study is perhaps one of the first to investigate city brand personality for strategic communication in Malaysia.

Key words: City branding; City brand personality; Strategic communication; Bandar Melaka


In recent years, the city brand has become a major issue in both industry and academia. The city is keen to improve the image and brand value by maintaining their competitive edge. Some literature suggests that city brand personality is an essential element of a city; higher city brand personality creates an attractive brand. It is important to know what brands are if we want to understand the brand. To highlight the city brand means that the brand should communicate a consistent identity and the difference between identity and perceived identity conveyed by the people of the city that can build a strong and positive image disturb the city (Skinner, H., 2008).

Most of the literature on place branding and the city branding focused on how to build a brand (Kavaratzis, M. & M. J., Hatch, 2013). The real challenge here is how the city brand may become global and to avoid the future of nation branding with uncertain condition. On the other hand, it is about each and every country in the world is trying to develop their city branding activity. This study hesitates to use the word 'strategy' because lack of the general vision, long term commitment and coordination that describes the city branding initiatives of many countries. Dinnie (2008) noted that there was much evidence that countries are getting better at to improve their nation brands.

While the research deliberates the relevance of the central concepts branding for the city brand (Kavaratzis & Ashworth, 2005) and try whichever offer a general background for developing and managing city brands (Kavaratzis, M. & Mary Jo Hatch 2013; Kavaratzis 2004; Hankinson 2004; Hankinson 2001) and then to assess the appropriateness of specific branding tools to brand the city (Trueman et al, 2004). It is the most recent development considered to apply the concept of the corporate brand and specific methods developed in this field as an alternative of a place branding (Kavaratzis 2004 & Trueman et al, 2004). …

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