Academic journal article Genetic Counseling

Association of Interleukin-1 Beta (+3954) Gene Polymorphism and Gingival Crevicular Fluid Levels in Patients with Aggressive and Chronic Periodontitis

Academic journal article Genetic Counseling

Association of Interleukin-1 Beta (+3954) Gene Polymorphism and Gingival Crevicular Fluid Levels in Patients with Aggressive and Chronic Periodontitis

Article excerpt

Summary: Association of interleukin-1 beta (+3954) gene polymorphism and gingival crevicular fluid levels in patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis:

Background and objective: The immune mechanisms and genetic variations that regulate genetic expression, production and biological activity of IL-1β, are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. The aims of the present study were to analyse interleukin (IL)-1β (+3954) genotype and allele frequency in both chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients, and also to investigate whether this polymorphism is associated with gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) IL-1β levels, periodontal disease severity and clinical parameters in subjects of Turkish origin.

Methods: A total of 147 individuals were enrolled in the study including 56 aggressive periodontitis (AP), 44 chronic periodontitis (CP) patients and 47 healthy controls (C). Single nucleotide polymorphism at IL-1β (+3954) is analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). GCF samples were analyzed for IL-1β, using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: The distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies for IL-1β (+3954) were similar among the groups, in spite of a trend toward a higher frequency of allele 2 in the patient groups. The genotype distribution and allele frequencies were also not different after stratification of subjects according to the clinical attachment level (CAL<4mm and CAL>4mm). No differences were found between the GCF IL-1β levels of the different genotypes. Allele 2 was associated with increased bleeding on probing (BOP) sites in chronic periodontitis patients.

Conclusion: The results of this study do not support that genetic polymorphism in the IL-1β (+3954) could be identified as a susceptibility or severity factor in aggressive periodontitis, in the present population. The association of allele 2 frequency and higher percentage of BOP sites in chronic periodontitis suggest that IL-1β (+3954) potentially play a significant but not major role in the clinical outcome.

Key-words: IL-1β-Aggressive periodontitis - Chronic periodontitis - Gene polymorphism - GCF

INTRODUCTION

Inflammatory periodontal disease is a consequence of the interaction of environmental, genetic, host and microbial factors. Destruction of tooth supporting tissues in susceptible subjects results from the shifting balance of preventive and destructive immune mechanisms against microbial pathogens. Although the presence of microorganisms is a crucial factor in periodontal disease, host-related factors are the determining parameters for the progression and severity of the clinical status. Host response to bacteria triggers the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators leading extracellular matrix catabolism and bone resorption in periodontitis (26, 35).

Interleukin (IL)-l is a multifactorial cytokine which is able to activate many cell types with potent inflammatory features. The wide biological effects of IL-1 result from its central role in regulation of many different genes. IL-1, affects approximately 90 genes that occur during inflammation. These include the genes which regulate cytokines, cytokine receptors, acute phase reactants, growth factors, extracellular matrix components and adhesion molecules (9, 23).

Clinical studies have illustrated that the amount of IL- Iß is much higher in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in periodontal pockets or in the underlying inflamed gingival tissue than at healthy sites. Furthermore, IL- Iß levels are higher in active periodontitis sites than in stable sites (23, 24, 52). The increased expression of IL-1 ß in periodontal tissues is one of the major facts that is hold responsible for the extracellular matrix and bone destruction (36). There have been a considerable number of studies demonstrating inter-subject variation in cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. …

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