Academic journal article International Journal of Communication Research

The Main Treaties and Conventions Adopted by the European Council

Academic journal article International Journal of Communication Research

The Main Treaties and Conventions Adopted by the European Council

Article excerpt

1. GENERAL PRESENTATION

The creation of the European Union was an aggressive institutional process, being the result of the concerted efforts of western democracies, in the wish of an authentic socio-economic and political integration. The idea of a united Europe was not a new desideratum; promoted by the League of Nations, a beginning in this sense was marked by the appearance, in 1949, of the European Council, by the common will of ten countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden). It played a part mainly in the social and cultural field, and not in the economic one. On a military level, an important moment was marked by the setting up of the Western European Union-U.E.O, through the signing, on 17 March, 1948, of The Treaty of Brussels, (modified through the Paris Accords of 23 October, 1954), which contained the provision for mutual military assistance in case of aggression by a member state.

Quite consistent was also the American intercession, through the launch of the Marshall Plan1 to help the European countries which were in deep water after the war (context in which we must also refer to the founding of the Organization for European Economic Co-operation-O.E.C.E. on 16 April, 1948, conceived as a structure which would continue the objectives proposed by the Marshall Plan) or on a political and military level, with the establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation-N.A.T.O. after the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April, 1949.

In response, the socialist countries in Central and Eastern Europe, under the political and economic influence of the U.S.S.R, laid the basis of similar international structures of economic cooperation-the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance-C.A.E.R. in January, 1949, and of military cooperation, by signing the Warsaw Pact on 14 May 1955. As a result of the elimination of communist regimes in member states and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the international organisations mentioned before became history, being dissolved in 1991.

One important, transient, episode in the forming process of the European Union was the establishment of the three European Communities within which the cooperation between member states was meant to be more efficient than the one allowed by the international organisations mentioned previously.

2. THE PARIS TREATY

Knowing the role that the coal and steel industry have played in triggering world conflicts and trying to pacify the French and German interests in the economic field, Jean Monnet (high commissioner for the modernisation and equipment of France) proposes to govern the market sector comprising coal and steel through a supranational structure.2 As a consequence, on 18 April 1951, the Paris Treaty concerning the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community is signed by France, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemburg and Italy for a period of 50 years. It became effective on 10 August 1952.

3. THE ROME TREATY

In Rome, on la 25 March 1957 is signed the Treaty concerning the establishment of the European Atomic Energy Community-E. A.E.C/ EURATOM, whose purpose was that of creating a common atomic market, and the treaty concerning the European Economic Community, which has an even broader goal, surpassing the borders of purely sectorial economic solidarity and aspiring to European integration and the creation of a single market.

4. THE BRUSSELS MERGER TREATY

The Merger Treaty (Brussels) unified the institutions of the three European Communities, but kept the special provision that these institutions will carry out their duties and use their powers within each Community, according to the provisions of each Treaty.3

The three communities, ECSC, EEC and EURATOM functioned separately from 1958 to 1967, when the Treaty of merger of the executive bodies signed on 8 April 1965 became effective. …

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