Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

A Measure of Social of Globalization: Factor Analytic and Substantial Validity Assessment Using a Sample of Young Adult Kuwaitis

Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

A Measure of Social of Globalization: Factor Analytic and Substantial Validity Assessment Using a Sample of Young Adult Kuwaitis

Article excerpt

Abstract. A sample of 146 undergraduate university students in Kuwait were used to establish the factor structure and substantive validity of a 21-item questionnaire of social globalization based on the conceptualized dimensions of personal contact, cultural proximity, and information flows. Results of the factor analysis suggested a five-factor structure that was labeled: information flows-internet; information flows-print; information flows-TV; personal contact; and cultural proximity. Furthermore, results of the substantive validity analysis suggested that although the items may be indicative of the constructs under investigation, respondents did not correlate them with their intended constructs with a higher degree of concordance. Implications for further research are discussed.

Keywords: factor analysis, substantive validity, social globalization, Kuwait.

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)


Globalization has brought an important conceptual change in the way we think about our world. Many people are realizing that events happening in our own nations are actually of international interest. With the arrival of instantaneous information dissemination, it feels like events happening in distant places are closer to us because individual bloggers and modern mass media can simulcast events as they happen. Such unprecedented levels of interconnectedness have far-reaching implications for how societies, nations, and individuals operate in the new social realities of the world we live in.

The interconnectedness among nations has made the world a global village (McLuhan, 1964) where individuals can acquire knowledge about almost anything happening in various corners of this village. If the world is now a global village, how do the individuals in this village organize and give meaning to their experiences? Does this global village phenomenon influence different individuals in the same way and to the same extent?. How do we assess globalization at the individual level to investigate its effects? In light of such questions, the major goal of the present undertaking was to develop a survey questionnaire to measure globalization at the individual level.

There are at least two reasons why the individual as unit of analysis requires special attention in discussions pertaining to globalization: First, the issue of globalization is not limited to individuals' present lives, but also has implications for the future. Second, there is still a lack of direct information on individual's experiences of globalization. Both reasons highlight the importance of developing measurements to help understand and monitor the impact of globalization. Furthermore, the field lacks any psychometrically sound and empirically developed scale or index that measures social globalization at the individual level (Arnett, 2002). The lack of sound indices means that the question of whether the social dimension of globalization has implications for identity or acculturative stress remains a theoretical issue. Additionally, "the complexity of globalization certainly invites additional research and the use of multiple methods of data collection and analysis" (Guillén, 2001, pp. 255-256) that is not limited to the national level, but rather, a lower level of analysis (Juscius & Lekaviciene, 2007; Kobrin, 1991; Sullivan, 1994).

Consequently, this paper takes a social-psychological slant on the globalization debate and attempts to assess social globalization at the individual level (in terms of personal contact, information flow, and cultural proximity) using a sample of young adult Kuwaitis. This is premised on the argument that the younger generation in the Arab world may be more exposed to Western and other non-Western worldviews and cultures (Solberg, 2002).

Before proceeding with the main questions of the present paper, we would like to clarify a few definitional issues related to globalization. Pursuant to that, we explore some questions related measurement of globalizations, after which we outline in detail the major foci of our research enterprise. …

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