Academic journal article Informatica Economica

Smart Cities Design Using Event-Driven Paradigm and Semantic Web

Academic journal article Informatica Economica

Smart Cities Design Using Event-Driven Paradigm and Semantic Web

Article excerpt

The concept of "smart city" has attracted considerable attention lately. Still, common definitions are hard to find, and there is a lack of formal models to guide their design. This paper introduces the architecture of Event-driven Smart City, the kind of city where digital artifacts enable the interoperability between Internet of Services, Internet of Things and Internet of People in order to empower inhabitants to quickly react to a larger variety of events, even remotely and using fewer resources than before. Configurability of actions to be carried out automatically when events happen is considered here as core requirement for a smart city. We also explore the usability of the latest advances in Eventdriven SOA and Semantic Web technologies to implement smart cities as systems based on the proposed architecture.

Keywords: Smart Cities, Event-driven Architecture, Business Rules, Semantic Web

1 Introduction

The rapid urban population growth worldwide is challenging many cities to define smarter ways to manage the increasing number of issues generated as a consequence of the growth. The new label for such cities is "smart city". One way to conceptualize a smart city is an icon of a sustainable and livable city [7]. However, there are still divergent opinions with respect to the understanding of the concept among practitioners and academia. A study made by Vienna's Centre of Regional Science has identified six dimensions of a smart city[1]:smart economy; smart mobility; smart environment; smart people; smart living; and, finally, smart governance. As a consequence, one can find a variety of definitions for smart cities, many of them not necessarily considering ICT (Information and Communications Technology) or the ubiquitous computing paradigm as implicit pre-requisites for the system design. Regardless of how many dimensions a smart city may expose, a literature review reveals two main streams of research ideas: 1) smart cities should do everything related to governance and economy using new thinking paradigms and 2) smart cities are all about networks of sensors, smart devices, real time data and ICT integration in every aspect of human life.

A representative of the first approach, Hall [11] believes a smart city should monitor and integrate conditions of all of its critical infrastructures, from roads and bridges to major buildings, to better optimize its resources, plan its preventive maintenance activities, and monitor security aspects while maximizing services to its citizens. In the already mentioned study, Giffinger et al [1] describe smart cities as well performing in a forward-looking way in economy, people, governance, mobility, environment, and living, built on the smart combination of endowments and activities of self-decisive, independent and aware citizens. The Natural Resources Defense Council [9] defines smarter in the urban context as more efficient, sustainable, equitable, and livable. Toppeta [10] emphasizes the improvement in sustainability and livability.

In contrast, the second approach to smart cities focus on ICT applied to redesign every aspect of urban life. In Harrison et all's study [8], a smart city denotes an instrumented, interconnected, and intelligent city. Instrumentation enables the capture and integration of live real-world data through the use of sensors, kiosks, meters, personal devices, appliances, cameras, smart phones, implanted medical devices, the web, and other similar data-acquisition systems, including social networks as networks of human sensors. Interconnection means the integration of those data into an enterprise computing platform and the communication of such information among the various city services. Intelligence refers to the inclusion of complex analytics, modeling, optimization, and visualization in the operational business processes to make better operational decisions. Washburn et al. [12] view a smart city as a collection of smart computing technologies applied to critical infrastructure components and services. …

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