Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

A New Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Cardiovascular Drugs in Dosage Forms

Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

A New Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Cardiovascular Drugs in Dosage Forms

Article excerpt

Abstract. A simple, accurate, and precise spectrophotometric method has been proposed for the determination of three cardiovascular drugs, namely: Atenolol (ATE), Doxazosin mesylate (DOX) and Lisinopril dihydrate (LID) in pharmaceutical formulations. Proposed method is based on the derivatization of drugs with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic (NQS). The optimum experimental conditions have been studied. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration of 0.5-3, 0.4-8, and 5-50 µg/mL for ATE, DOX, and LID, respectively. The detection limits were 0.11, 0.12, and 1.16 µg/mL for ATE, DOX, and LID, respectively, with a linear regression correlation coefficient of 0.9993, 0.9998, and 0.9997 and recovery in range from 98.25-102.57, 97.20-100.57, and 97.83-101.80for ATE, DOX, and LID, respectively. Effects of pH, temperature, reaction time, and NQS concentration on the determination of ATE, DOX, and LID, have been examined. This method is simple and can be applied for the determination of ATE, DOX, and LID in pharmaceutical formulations in quality control laboratories.

Keywords: Spectrophotometric, cardiovascular drugs, dosage forms, sodium1,2- naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic (NQS)

1 INTRODUCTION

There are several cardiovascular diseases and multiple cardiovascular agents for their treatment. The most common cardiovascular disease is hypertension. Hypertension increases the risk of stroke and other heart diseases. Cardiovascular drugs are used to control this disease, with no cure being currently available. Diuretics, á-adrenergic antagonists, â-receptor antagonist, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE) and calcium channel blockers are the primary routes of treatment for hypertension (Nhung et al., 1996). Atenolol (Fig.1.(i)) is an antihypertensive, antianginal, and antiarrhythmic drug. Chemically,it is[(RS)-2-{4-[2-hydroxy- 3(propan2ylamino)propoxy]phenyl} acetamide] is a selective â1- receptor antagonist, a drug belonging to the group of beta blocker. Doxazosin mesylate Fig.1.(ii) is a quinazoline compound that is selective inhibitor of the á1 subtype of á-adrenergic receptors. Its chemical name is [1-(4-Amino-6,7-dimethoxyquinazolin-2-yl)-4-[(2RS)-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2- ylcarbonyl]Pip erazine methanesulphonate. Lisinopril (Fig.1.(iii)), [(2S)-1-[(2S)-6-Amino-2- [[(1S)-1-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]amino]hexanoyl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid dihydrate], is anangiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor.

The literature reveals various methods for the determination of the mentioned drugs in pharmaceutical preparations. Among these methods are UV spectroscopy (Kasture & Ramteke 2006; Vetuschi & Ragno 1990; Vrushali et al., 2010; Vishnu et al., 2010) ,spectrofluorometery (Damiani P.C. 2011) , reversed phase HPLC (Kavitha & Muralidharan 2010; Kumar et al., 2010) and HPTLC (Sathe & Bari 2007) for ATE, Several analytical methods that have been reported for the estimation of DOX in biological fluids or pharmaceutical formulations which includes RP-HPLC(Chokchai et al., 2007; Kulsum et al., 2011; Dhanya et al., 2011), HPLC with mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) (Ning et al., 2007), UV-Spectrophotometry (Padma & Vidya 2011; Aydomu & Barla 2008; Bebawy et al., 2002) .and for LID is potentiometry (British Pharmacopoeia 2004), RP-HPLC (Naidu et al., 2005), HPTLC(Argekar & Powar 2000) ,HPLC(Beasley et al., 2005), UV- Spectrophotometric (Prasad et al., 1999; Priyanka et al., 2009; Rahman et al., 2005; Stanisz B 2004; Paraskevas et al., 2002), spctrofluorometric (El-Gindy et al., 2001). Sodium1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic (NQS) Fig.1.(iv) has been used for the determination of many compounds. It is a popular spectrophotometric reagent due to its efficient reactivity with both primary and secondary amines, and high reaction rate (Wang et al., 2004; Darwish et al., 2009; Quan-M & Zhan- Jun.Y.2007; Li Zhang et al., 2008; Ebraheem et al., 2011; Ahmed et al., 2011; Elbashir et al., 2011; Ahmed & Elbashir 2012). …

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