Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in the Adults in Haikou City, Hainan Island, China

Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in the Adults in Haikou City, Hainan Island, China

Article excerpt


Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) occurs around the world with high prevalence and causes serious physical harm and economic burden to the afflicted. Haikou City is China's southernmost tropical island city, which has not been previously studied for its T2DM prevalence. The objective of the study in employing a cross-sectional survey is to discuss the epidemiologic status of T2DM in Haikou City and to analyze the possible determinants.

Methods: A total of 12,000 community residents over 18 years old from four districts in Haikou City were stratified-randomly sampled. A questionnaire survey and physical examination were conducted. Data entry and statistical analysis were performed using SPSS17.0 software.

Results: The prevalence of T2DM in Haikou City was 5.3% (5.15% for males and 5.46% for females). According to the multivariate analysis, the positive factors mainly associated with T2DM in the city included family history, Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR), triglycerides, low high-density lipoproteins (HDL), and blood pressure. For both men and women, family history was the highest independent risk factor associated with T2DM (OR= 47.128). The T2DM risk increased with increasing metabolic aggregate.

Conclusion: The prevalence of T2DM for the community population of Haikou City was low. The possible risk factors included age, occupation, BMI, waist circumference, WHR, overweight, systemic obesity, central obesity, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins, family history, and HDL.

Keywords: Diabetes type 2, Prevalence, Risk factors, Epidemiology, Haikou


Diabetes is a worldwide epidemic. Diabetes and obesity are now seen as a global epidemic (1). Ac-cording to the statistics published by WHO in 2011, the number of people with diabetes around the world has reached 366 million, most of which are type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The coun-tries with the fastest increase in incidence are developing countries, with dramatic differences exhibited from poor to rich financial statuses. In recent decades, rapid industrialization and urbanization in China has led to major changes in the patterns of complex diseases (e.g., T2DM) (2).

The prevalence of diabetes in China is rapidly ris-ing, and the country is set to become the second largest country for diabetes incidences after India. Diabetes is a lifelong disease with a wide range of complications, which bring the heavy burden of disease, disability, death, serious prognosis. One person dies of the disease every seven seconds, and 4.6 million people die of the disease each year.

The majority of patients with diabetes have incapacity to control blood sugar, which leads to serious complications, such as heart disease, stroke, kidney, nerve and foot damage, blindness, and poor quality of life. Some patients would ra-ther die than live. Therefore, we should actively study diabetes.

Many diabetes epidemiology studies have been conducted locally and abroad, most of which in-volve residents of urban communities, farmers, migrant workers, occupation groups, and high-risk groups. However, very few studies have been con-ducted on tropical island residents.

Haikou City is the capital of Hainan Island in China, which has a distinct economic develop-ment trend, social culture, geography, and climate. However, the T2DM prevalence among the resi-dents, epidemic rule, and risk factors are still un-known.

Therefore, we carried out an epidemiological sur-vey to analyze and conduct a preliminary estimate of the T2DM prevalence among the residents in the tropical island, analyze the epidemic rule and risk factors, and provide a scientific basis to pro-pose appropriate prevention and intervention measures for the island population.

Materials and Methods

Sampling methods and sample size

Using stratified random sampling to study and analyze the current T2DM situation in Haikou City, the survey was conducted from September 2010 to September 2011. …

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