Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

Infertility and Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Jordan A Social Study

Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

Infertility and Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Jordan A Social Study

Article excerpt

Abstract. A huge breakthrough in the treatment of infertility happened after the birth of Louise Brown the in 1978 the first IVF (In Vito Fertilization) in the world. This development led to the spread of ART(Assisted Reproductive Technologies) around the globe ,and ever since infertility and ART have raised a lot of attention. This study tries to discover the social context and the social motivations that may have contributed in the infertile couples's decision to seek medical help. A questionnaire was distributed on 30 patients in two hospitals in Amman ( ALISRAA, The Specialty). The patients mean age was 33.5 years with a variety of nationalities which are all from Arabic countries. After the analysis of collected data the study found: some stigma and secrecy surrounded the patient situation, the society pressure was influential in the experience of infertility and women relatively endured a bigger burden than men in the Jordanian society.

Keywords: infertility, Assisted Reproductive Technologies, Jordan, sociocultural context, medical sociology.

1 INTRODUCTION

Since the beginning of time it's always normal to get married and have children who are valued in all societies for social psychological, economical and emotional reasons. However when a couple face difficulty in conceiving they try to overcome it by any means necessary including medical treatment which developed rapidly in the last couple of decades. In September 1995 published an issue surrounding the biggest inventions that changed the face of humanity in the last century and mentioned the following : automobile, cinema, computer and a few medical inventions which included - one of ARTs- IVF , whereof indicates Assisted reproduction scientific and human importance (Rennie,1995). Assisted reproduction is worldwide phenomena, but the medical symmetry doesn't impose a parallel social reaction around the globe, on the contrary ARTs are treated differently in each culture according to the social cultural and religious context. Previous studies covered the medical, religious, legal and psychological infertility aspects, but a few dealt with social aspects and maybe none - in the limit of knowledge - were in the Arabic world by Arabs. So this study is an effort to fill the gap and explore the social dimension of the research problem.

2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Infertility

In a normal population of active sexual women who are not using contraceptives 25% will be pregnant by the first month of marriage, 63% within 6 months, and 80% within the first year (Gerrity,2001) if pregnancy was delayed the couples or one of them may suffer from infertility. Infertility is the failure to achieve pregnancy after 12 months or more of unprotected sexual intercourse (Moura-Ramous,2012). Infertility affects 8-32% of the world population, and according to world health organization WHO infertility becomes a public health issue when it accedes 15% of married couples in the country (Philippove,et al.,1998). Infertility is two types primary infertility where pregnancy never happened before and secondary infertility in which pregnancy happened once but didn't happen again (Sundby,2002).

2.2 Assisted Reproductive Technologies

The center for disease control and prevention (CDC) defines ARTs as follows " all treatments or procedures that involves surgically removing eggs from a women ovaries and combining eggs with sperm to help a women become pregnant. ARTs types are : In vitro fertilization, Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer and Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer "(Harwood,1996). Success rates vary from 20% (Inhorn,2002) to 25% live birth for each IVF cycle until the age of 34 when a women's fertility starts to decline (Fathallah,2001) . Although PGD or Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis is one of the ARTs and it was originally developed to prevent sex related diseases , sometimes it is utilized to choose the sex of the baby due to social and cultural reasons which usually doesn't favor females (Serour,2001). …

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