Academic journal article The Journal of Faculty Development

Faculty Perspectives on Baldwin and Chang's Mid-Career Faculty Development Model

Academic journal article The Journal of Faculty Development

Faculty Perspectives on Baldwin and Chang's Mid-Career Faculty Development Model

Article excerpt

The purpose of this study was to determine the merit and applicability of the mid-career faculty development model proposed by Baldwin and Chang (2006). A total of 7 associate and 10 full professors participated in semi-structured interviews. Categories were developed from an inductive analysis. The results showed positive support for the model and revealed that participants perceived the importance of reflection and assessment. Participants focused on short term goals and agreed with career plans, and identified collégial support, time/sabbaticals, release time, and travel funds as central resources. Lastly, the participants supported reinforcement, but emphasized showing appreciation across the board.

Mid-career faculty members can often be overlooked on college and university campuses for professional development (Baldwin & Chang, 2006; Strage, Nelson, & Meyers, 2008). Romano, Hoesing, O'Donovan, and Weinsheimer (2004) stated "professional development programming that addresses the teaching and learning issues of this population has not been a priority" (p. 21). Baldwin, DeZure, Shaw, and Moretto (2008) define mid-career as "the lengthy period between the end of professors' probationary years and their preparation for retirement" (p. 48). According to Strage et al. (2008), "Nationwide, over half of higher education faculty are at mid-career" (p. 71). Since mid-career faculty comprise a large percentage of all college and university faculties, it is important to examine their professional development needs.

Scholarly papers have reported on faculty development programs for mid-career faculty, such as the Mid-Career Teaching Program (MCTP) at the University of Minnesota (Romano, et al. 2004), and provided suggestions for supporting the mid-career researcher (Nottis, 2005). One of the most informative studies on mid-career faculty professional development was completed by Baldwin and Chang (2006). In their study, the researchers completed "a national web-based investigation to identify strategies specifically designed to address the needs of mid-career faculty in colleges and universities" (p. 28). A variety of institutions, ranging from small to large and public and private, were reviewed for the support the schools provided for mid-career faculty. After compiling

and categorizing the support systems, the scholars proposed a model (Figure 1)1 that can provide a support system for faculty in the middle years of academic life. The steps in the mid-career faculty development process included: (a) career reflection and assessment, (b) career planning: short and long term goals, and (c) career action/ implementation. Additionally, three areas of support were proposed in the model to maintain the development process and included: (a) collégial support, (b) resources, and (c) reinforcement.

Under career reflection and assessment, the scholars highlighted activities, such as annual reviews, post-tenure reviews, and faculty retreats as "natural opportunities for mid-career reflection" (pp. 32-33). Baldwin and Chang (2006) emphasized that organizing these activities "to be more developmental than evaluative can stimulate the type of active career reflection that can promote renewal" (p. 33). The career planning step was discussed by the scholars as a way to keep mid-career faculty "moving professionally and align their professional growth with the direction in which their institution is moving" (p. 33). The development of short term (1 to 3 years) and long term goals (5 to 10 years) was presented in this phase of the model.

In the last development step, career action/ implementation, the scholars recommended that "growth opportunities should be aligned with professors' distinctive interests, situations, and developmental needs" (p. 33). It is suggested in this phase of the development process, that mid-career faculty have the opportunity to employ their career plans. Taken together, (i.e., career reflection and assessment, career planning, and career action/ implementation), the scholars anticipate these steps in the model may help engage and energize mid-career faculty. However, Baldwin and Chang (2006), also point out that support is needed to help mid-career faculty continue to grow. The scholars suggested that collégial and organizational support is important and presented three areas of support in their model. The first area is collégial support which consists of "mentoring, networking, and collaborating" (p. 33). The second area of support was called resources and consisted of items such as "information, time, funding, space, etc." (p. 33). The last area of support is reinforcement and consisted of "recognition and rewards" (p. 33). Overall, the model proposed by Baldwin and Chang (2006) may assist administrators and institutions "to design a support system for faculty in the middle years of academic life" (p. 32) and "identify gaps in their services to mid-career faculty" (p. 32).

In order to shed more light on the topic of mid-career faculty professional development programs, the current study was conducted. The purpose of the study was to determine the merit and applicability of the Mid-Career Faculty Development Model proposed by Baldwin and Chang (2006). The research questions for the study included:

1. What are associate and full professors' perspectives regarding the three key facets (career reflection and assessment, career planning: short and long term goals, and career action/ implementation) in the mid-career faculty development process?

2. What are associate and full professors' perspectives regarding the three key facets (career reflection and assessment, short-term and long-term career planning, and career action/ implementation) in the mid-career faculty development process?

Method

Setting and Participants

A professional college from a large university located in the Midwest was the setting for the study. A purposeful sample was utilized in this study and 30 faculty members (15 associate and 15 full professors) were invited to participate in the study. The sample was chosen based on rank, gender, race, years in faculty rank, and academic discipline. A total of seven associate professors and 10 full professors agreed to participate in the study. Table 1 included the demographics of the participants. It should be noted that while the original data collection included a number of specific demographic information only certain information (i.e., rank, years in rank, gender, and race) were presented. Academic discipline and age were not included to protect the identity of the participants.

Interview Guide and Pilot Test

The interview guide consisted of six questions and focused on Baldwin and Chang's (2006) Mid-Career Faculty Development Model. Prior to interviewing the participant, a pilot test, which included one associate and one full professor, was conducted to determine the clarity and order of questions. Based on the feedback, the questions were modified and expanded in order to fully engage the participants. The interview guide is shown in Appendix A.

Data Collection and Analysis

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with each participant. The interviews ranged in length from 21 minutes to 2 hours, and depended upon the participants responses. Each interview was recorded with a digital voice recorder. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and shared with each participant for member checking. In addition to interviews, field notes were kept. Each participant was asked to complete a demographic information sheet. Categories were developed from an inductive analysis (Patton, 1990). A peer debriefer was used as part of the review and confirmation process of the transcripts (Lincoln & Guba, 1985).

Results

The results are displayed to indicate the participants' perspectives on Baldwin and Chang's (2006) model. The participants have been identified by a number which is found in Table 1.

Career Reflection and Assessment

According to the participants, their perspectives highlighted: (a) importance of reflection and assessment, (b) informal reflection, and (c) approaches to reflection. Importance of reflection and assessment. Several participants noted the importance of reflection and assessment and one participant used an analogy of a treadmill: "you're sort of on the treadmill and always have to assess where you are and where you're going" (Participant 15). One participant commented: "Well, I think that is a valuable process that all faculty should engage in and certainly mid-career faculty" (Participant 1). Below are example excerpts noting the importance:

I definitely agree that reflection and assessment are really important and I have engaged in. (Participant 6)

I think it is a good approach to reflect and take an opportunity to think about some things you do well and those things you don't do well, that you might want to develop more. (Participant 9)

Informal reflection. One feature that emerged was several participants engaged in reflection in an informal way as one person noted "...although I don't know that I've done that formally" (Participant 6). Another participant commented: "I guess informally, yes, just informally and throughout. Not in any strategic or systematic fashion" (Participant 10) and another stated: "... I do not set-up a time to reflect, but it is an on-going process" (Participant 5). One participant who participates in informal reflection describes the role of reflection:

I believe I'm engaged in it in an informal way. I agree with it, definitely. I think reflection has to be done so you evaluate where you have been, where you're going, what areas you need to improve. You have to take time, even though we're real busy with our schedules. I think it is important sometime to just sit back and reflect where you have been in all areas, teaching, service, and research, where are you currently and where you are going to, maybe to get to that next level. (Participant 7)

Approaches to reflection. The participants identified a variety of approaches to reflection. Some participants focused on the timing of the reflection, using colleagues, and having benchmarks. The timing of reflection varied and is shown in these excerpts:

I would start, by saying, where do you stand? I learned early on, was told early on, I felt this was very good advice. This was told to me by someone when I was still a graduate student. She was a young assistant professor. She said to look at your career in these five year blocks and I thought that was really good advice. (Participant 8)

Yes, we have done some on our annual review. There's a reflection piece. I think it really gets you thinking about your strengths and weaknesses and areas you would like to improve on. (Participant 12)

Some individuals mentioned the use of colleagues to help with the reflection. One participant commented on colleagues external to the institution:

I send them my vita .. .and I say what will it take for me to have your endorsement, or at your institution? They will look at it and I say don't spend a lot of time, I just want to hear your reflections on what I've done and the impact of my work. (Participant 17)

Colleagues internal to the institution were also suggested:

I think it should happen in concert with at least one or two faculty members that are in that person's program area. (Participant 14)

Participant 16 commented: ".. .reflection is no good without a sturdy benchmark against which to reflect" and Participant 6 said "... I think it would be nice for people, when they go to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses to try to figure out who it is they're supposed to compare themselves to."

Career Planning

According to the participants, their perspectives highlighted: (a) engaged in short and long term goals, (b) engaged in short term goals, not really long term goals, and (c) flexibility.

Engaged in short and long term goals. A number of participants commented on the value of short and long term goals. One participant stated: "Yes, definitely" (Participant 3) and another participant commented: "I agree with it. I have attempted to engage in the process" (Participant 13). One participant describes the process of being engaged below:

I think it's important and I've engaged in it to the extent that I've had to turn in annual reviews. Sometimes they were things that I truly did have as long term plans. And I've always had long term plans. I guess I've always had short ones. I think looking back I probably always, I shouldn't say always, I think I had a pretty good track record in terms of meeting them. (Participant 4)

Engaged in short term, not really long term goals. Interestingly, participants commented on being focused on the short term goal rather than the long term goal. The excerpts below show the emphasis on short term goals:

I have engaged in short term goals more so than long term goals because in an environment such as this, that is constantly changing, and I mean constantly, I think long term goals can be just a waste of time. (Participant 10)

I've definitely developed short term goals, again with the end of the year review and just thinking about what I'm doing here. Long term goals, I've not ever been particularly good at. But, no I don't do long term goals. (Participant 6)

Certainly, I believe in short term because they motivate you to continue and to give the bigger picture. Sometimes the long term goals can take a lot longer than expected. I'm in favor of taking baby steps toward those long term goals, certainly, I do. (Participant 17)

Probably more in the sense of short term goals rather than long term goals. I have engaged in developing, and I'm thinking of short term goals, that are goals a year or less. I have engaged in those activities. But in terms of long term goals which I'm thinking as beyond a year, possibly up to 3-5 years, no not really. (Participant 9)

Flexibility. Participants noted flexibility when developing goals. The following excerpts emphasized flexibility:

One has to have some flexibility because of timing of opportunity, of lack of opportunity, the climate of the school, college, university. (Participant 2)

We send to our director some goals that we said we think we were going to do. But, you know, in reflecting on that process maybe about 50% of the goals are ever actually valid because something else happens in the mean while. Whether an opportunity or distraction of some kind occurs, positively or negatively. It may be an interesting thing to look at what the fulfillment of goals actually were for faculty in the sense that it's not that they didn't try and achieve them and fail. But, whether or not they just got swept up by some other goal in the interim. So I think there's always the need for flexibility. (Participant 4)

Career Action/Implementation

According to the participants, their perspectives highlighted: (a) supportive of career plans, (b) informal career plans, and (c) institutional shifts.

Supportive of career plans. Several participants noted the importance of career plans. One participant commented: "I think it definitely can help" (Participant 12) and another participant stated: "I think it's a good idea to have a career plan to implement" (Participant 10). One participant commented:

I agree with the approach. I think the one thing I will say, I do think it is really important, and I think after I got tenured I really, even though you're supposed to, I really had no implementation career plan for later on. (Participant 13)

Informal career plans. Interestingly, informal career plans emerged through the interviews as highlighted in example excerpts below:

I don't have the time like I use to, to formalize it and put it in paper format... it's more like jotting down my ideas and putting it on a piece of paper. 2 years, 3 years, and sometimes I do a cognitive map. (Participant 17)

I write lists. I set goals. I check off the list. (Participant 15)

Nothing real formal. I just created my own spreadsheet, if you will, a grid of, these are my short term goals, these are my long term goals...It wasn't real elaborate. (Participant 7)

Institutional shifts. Participants noted that changes in the institution's priorities or in administrators can play a part in whether one does a long term plan. These excerpts illustrate the changes:

There may be some institutional motives or devices that would steer you in one direction versus what might just be your individual thoughts and perceptions. It becomes more difficult to project out and the reason I think it is more difficult is administrators change. (Participant 1)

No. I haven't had the opportunity to implement a career plan. And if I think about the direction of the institution, I don't know what to say about that because I can't really put my finger on it. (Participant 6)

Collégial Support

According to the participants, their perspectives highlighted: (a) importance of collégial support, (b) mechanisms to foster collégial support, and (c) collaborations. Importance of collégial support. Several participants noted the importance of collégial support and one participant noted how colleagues help keep one's drive through this comment: "I think it's key. It's probably the most central key. If you've got good collégial support, you can keep your momentum going (Participant 11)." Below is an example excerpt noting the importance of this type of support:

I think it's important to have not just the instrumental support I guess, but more like the support of your colleagues, that they want you to do well and to have a collaborative environment rather than a competitive environment. (Participant 10)

Two participants commented on collégial support, but noted that this type of support is two ways as shown in these excerpts:

I think it has to be reciprocal, where not only do people present you with opportunities, but you in turn present them with opportunities back and forth. Those things then can build in to long term relationships which benefit everybody. (Participant 9)

.. .collégial support is like a two-way street. I can provide the support to a faculty member, but does the faculty member want to be supported by me personally? To me, it's a two-way street, the person wants to be, have support, in whatever area. (Participant 2)

Mechanisms to foster collégial support. The participants identified a variety of approaches to foster collégial support. Some participants focused on informal gatherings while others mentioned administrators. Below is an example of an excerpt with an emphasis on informal gatherings:

Again, I'm remembering how some people like that, they like the brown bag lunch, let's chat. I'm not one for the Friday afternoon beer. Some are, but I don't want to do that. To have an opportunity to say that's available and even though that might be offered sometime in the upcoming year, know that I could, know that there was going to be this luncheon in the room at the faculty club and there would be people willing to talk about how, they themselves are projecting toward the future. (Participant 15)

Participants perceived that administrators can play a role in fostering collegiality. Below is an example excerpt:

I think administrators can step in and where they see an area in research, where it's like we've got an area of potential funding, let's pull some people to the table who can add a perspective on this particular topic. Getting an administrator to pull everybody to the table and get the ball rolling, can develop a strong professional network. (Participant 11)

Collaborations. The participants identified working and collaborating with others when discussing collegiality. Both collaborations within and outside the institution were represented. Below is an example of an excerpt:

I actually do a lot of collaborating over the years with people, currently with people here, and other long standing, active collaborations with people outside. My views on that is, it is extremely important. (Participant 8)

Yes. I see it within our (Academic Area) faculty but also with colleagues that are around the country who I engage in with writing and other activities as well. I think both are critical in moving forward. (Participant 9)

Resources

According to the participants, their perspectives highlighted: (a) individual needs, (b) time/ sabbatical, (c) travel for conferences, and (d) release time.

Individual needs. Several participants noted that resources depend on an individual's need. One participant mentioned "...when it comes to resourcing people for their career development, I think this is a very individualized process" (Participant 8). Another participant noted: "I think it depends on the person, what you need" (Participant 13). One colleague suggested it was not about the money, but rather an opportunity to do something new as shown in this excerpt:

It's not about the money as much as it is about an opportunity to do that new thing and that somebody is recognizing that new thing is taking time and effort from you. (Participant 15)

Time/sabbatical. One of the key resources that emerged was time and is summed up best by this participant's comments: "You named one of the most important and that's a faculty member's time, is the most valuable resource they have" (Participant 16). Another participant stated: "I think time is an extremely needed and valuable resource" (Participant 10). Suggestions under time included sabbaticals and giving course releases to faculty. One participant commented: "...we need time to do research. Whenever possible, allow time off, whatever can be done" (Participant 5). Although sabbaticals were suggested, one participant noted: "I think a sabbatical is wonderful if it's focused. I think it would be a waste of time unless you really had a plan for that time" (Participant 9). One participant went as far as to suggest a required sabbatical for associate professors who are going for full professor. Sabbaticals can help re-charge one's batteries as Participant 4 said: "People's needs change over time and they need to re-skill, or re-gear up."

Travel for conferences. The participants noted how travel funds were important. Participant 16 commented: "You need to be able to travel a couple of times a year." While Participant 17 said: ".. .the resource that I found to be very important is money for your own conferences. Very critical." Some participants noted that attending conferences also helped them learn new ideas. Participant 12 commented "going to an international conference I thought was extremely beneficial, meeting others and learning some new ideas" and Participant 9 said "Just the ability to, in some cases, attend conferences even if you're not presenting because there's still a lot of things that you can learn depending on which conference."

Release Time. The participants supported release time. Participant 7 said: "Definitely release time" and Participant 11 noted: "I think release time is a big one." Some participants noted the benefits of release time and an example is shown in this excerpt:

I think at the associate level course, release time would be very beneficial to pursue. It's tough when you are teaching a couple of classes and you're worried about that teaching aspect. Sometimes the service and research component take kind of a back seat. (Participant 12)

Reinforcement

According to the participants, their perspectives highlighted: (a) pat on the shoulder/back, (b) notes, and (c) showing appreciation across the board.

Pat on the shoulder/back. Several participants noted the importance of reinforcement and as one participant commented: "...a pat on the shoulder is probably the most important thing" (Participant 3). Another person mentioned: "I think people underestimate the human need to get a pat on the back" (Participant 16). Participant 14 said: "It's always nice to have somebody recognize your efforts."

In contrasting views, one participant commented: "I'm personally not sure, I think there ought to be awards I'm not sure what value faculty actually put into them" (Participant 4). Another person commented more specifically about the mid-career level and areas for involvement:

I would almost say, by the time we have reached mid-career, at this point the real rewards, recognition, and awards you should be worried about are well beyond the level of the college, and maybe even the level of the university. People should be encouraged to get more involved in their professional societies, journal. (Participant 8)

Notes. A number of participants appreciated receiving notes. One person commented: "one day when I retire, I'm going to put them in a box and I'm going to go back through them. Because it's certainly makes you feel really good, when you get a card" (Participant 17). Another participant echoed these comments:

It could go anywhere from a handwritten note that just says, saw you got a new book that came out, or an article, or your service-learning project got cited at the university level, congratulations. I think those things are hugely valuable. (Participant 11)

There was mixed reaction to receiving a note from a colleague versus the dean.

Notes from deans don't do much for me because the dean doesn't know me. I'd rather get something from the colleagues that I know. (Participant 6)

The excerpts below can offer a view of why reinforcement from colleagues is perceived to be more important:

I think reinforcement particularly from your immediate colleagues and your school director.. .are probably more valuable, than perhaps reinforcement from a dean or university president...I think who you have a relationship with and you see more on an everyday basis, is very beneficial and more personable... (Participant 1)

Unfortunately, the dean is somewhat removed...it is probably more reinforcing coming from colleagues, people who are closer to you and know what you're doing... (Participant 9)

Below is an example of how a note from a department chair/school director or dean can positively make an impact on a faculty member:

...I still haven't forgotten to this day, when I published an article or something, the dean of the college at the time, he sent me a note, and he stuck it in my mailbox. (Participant 7)

Of the participants' responses to these questions, two individuals commented on monetary rewards. One participant flatly stated: "Frankly, the reinforcement that's most important to me is monetary" (Participant 10). Showing appreciation across the board. Interestingly, participants perceived that appreciation should be shared and go beyond those who have brought in grant money as evidenced by these excerpts:

...everybody makes some kind of contribution worth noting. (Participant 14)

When we distinguish one person over another, that seems a little unfair. If we distinguish five people a year for their contributions to scholarship in their field in the college, it feels a little better. Because there might be a correlation between grant size and who has the most money coming in, might have the most contribution. Then people will say they just got recognized because they brought in all that damn money. (Participant 4)

But, I think there are many faculty doing phenomenal things. They just didn't get a million dollar grant. They're really not recognized or rewarded for that. (Participant 13)

Conclusions and Implications

This study sought to learn more about the merit and applicability of the Mid-Career Faculty Development Model proposed by Baldwin and Chang (2006). Overall, the participants' comments indicated positive support for the model. Additionally, the participants' remarks highlighted parts of the model that administrators and faculty development committees may employ when implementing this type of model. In regard to the career development aspect of the model, the participants mentioned the importance of reflection and assessment, establishing goals, and developing career plans. It is interesting to note that participants focused more on short term goals as opposed to long term goals, and that flexibility was suggested when developing goals. One reason revealed by the participants for this type of focus was due to institutional shifts. When an institution changes administrators or priorities, these changes can affect a faculty member's career plan. It is conceivable that faculty do not wish to invest large amounts of time in longer term goals or career plans if institutions are constantly changing.

The support systems proposed by Baldwin and Chang (2006) to assist mid-career faculty were echoed by the participants. Moreover, in some cases, the participants emphasized which support systems may work better for mid-career faculty. Collégial support was key for the participants. The participants highlighted informal gatherings and administrators developing opportunities to foster collegiality. Additionally, time/ sabbatical emerged as a vital resource along with release time. The provision of travel funds for not only presenting, but to learn new ideas received support from the participants. In regard to reinforcement, being recognized and showing appreciation across the board were stressed. Participants appreciated receiving notes, although there was mixed reactions about receiving notes from colleagues versus deans.

Based on the findings, administrators, particularly department chairs since they have more direct contact with faculty, can meet with mid-career faculty to discuss short term goals and determine which resources are necessary to help the faculty member be successful. Department chairs can discuss long term goals and career plans, but may consider emphasizing flexibility with these goals and plans. In addition, department chairs may consider giving release time or perhaps some other form of merit-based financial support to assist faculty members in reaching their stated goals. Chairs can take time to write notes to acknowledge mid-career faculty contributions and inform the higher ups of accomplishments. Moreover, chairs are in positions to establish environments and collaborations among department faculty.

Reprinted with permission from "Reinforcing our strategies to support faculty in the middle years of academic life" (in Liberal Education, vol. 92, no. 4, 28-35). Copyright 2006 by the Association of American Colleges and Universities.

[Reference]

References

Baldwin, R. G., & Chang, D. A. (2006). Reinforcing our "keystone" faculty. Liberal Education, 92 (4), 28-35.

Baldwin, R., DeZure, D., Shaw, ?., & Moretto, K. (2008). Mapping the terrain of mid-career faculty at a research university: Implications for faculty and academic leaders. Omnge, 40 (5), 46-55.

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Nottis, K. (2005). Supporting the mid-career researcher. Journal of Faculty Development, 20 (2), 95-98.

Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Romano, J. L., Hoesing, R., CDonovan, K., & Weinsheimer, J. (2004). Faculty at mid-career: A program to enhance teaching and learning. Innovative Higher Education, 29 (1), 21-48.

Strage, ?., Nelson, C., & Meyers, S. (2008). "Stayin' alive:" Meeting faculty mid-career professional renewal needs. Metropolitan Universities, 19 (1), 71-83.

[Author Affiliation]

Donna L. Pastore

Ohio State University

[Author Affiliation]

Donna L. Pastore is a Professor of Sport Management at Ohio State University. Her current research interests focus on mentoring, particularly for mid-career faculty members. Her interest in this line of research was sparked after serving 5 Vi years as the Director of the School of PAES.

Appendix A

Interview Guide

1. Baldwin and Chang (2006) have developed a model for mid-career faculty development. They propose a model that can provide a support system for faculty in the middle years of academic life. The first step is career reflection and assessment. "To continue growing faculty need opportunities to reflect on their careers and assess their strengths, weaknesses, and development needs" (Baldwin & Chang, p. 32). What are your thoughts/perspectives about reflection and assessment? Do you agree with this approach? Have you engaged in this process? Do you have additional thoughts or ideas?

2. The second step is career planning. Baldwin and Chang suggest that "when faculty engage in systematic career reflection, they are better prepared to develop strategies that will keep them moving professionally and align their professional growth with the direction in which their institution is moving. Structured opportunities to develop short term (1 to 3 years) and long term (5 to 10 years) career plans can help mid-career professors identify goals" (p. 33) /objectives "during the years no longer structured" (p. 33) as when going through tenure. What are your thoughts/perspectives about developing short and long term goals? Do you agree with this approach? Have you engaged in this process? Do you have additional thoughts or ideas?

3. The third step is career action/implementation. The "opportunity to test or implement" (p. 33) career plans is important and "growth opportunities should be aligned with" (p. 33) one's "interests, situations, and development needs" (p. 33, Baldwin & Chang, 2006). What are your thoughts/perspectives about implementing a career plan? Do you agree with this approach? Have you had an opportunity to implement a career plan? Do you have additional thoughts or ideas?

4. Support is needed to sustain the mid-career faculty development process. Collégial and organizational support is important. Collégial support includes programs that "promote collaborative research or team teaching" (p. (34); "building networks to help mid-career faculty pursue new subject interests and branch out in new research directions" (p. 34); "formal or informal co-mentoring partnerships designed to help junior and veteran colleagues learn from and support one another's professional development" (p. 34, Baldwin & Chang, 2006). What are your thoughts/perspectives about collégial support? What are your thoughts/perspectives about organizational support? What type of collégial support would you suggest? What type of organizational support would you suggest? Do you have additional thoughts or ideas?

5. Resources are important to facilitate mid-career faculty growth. Sometimes "funding is required to permit a professor to attend a workshop on a new instructional or research technique or to meet with a collaborator at another institution" (p. 34). "A modest amount of release time or creative scheduling may be needed to allow a mid-career faculty member to engage in an exciting service project or prepare to teach a new interdisciplinary course" (p. 34). At times "an off-campus summer institute or foundation grant opportunity can encourage a mid-career faculty member to take on a new challenge. Carefully targeted resources, even when modest, can motivate and enable mid-career faculty to keep growing" (p. 34, Baldwin & Chang, 2006). What are your thoughts/ perspectives about resource support? What types of resource support would you suggest? Do you have additional thoughts or ideas?

6. Resources are important to facilitate mid-career faculty growth. Sometimes "funding is required to permit a professor to attend a workshop on a new instructional or research technique or to meet with a collaborator at another institution" (p. 34). "A modest amount of release time or creative scheduling may be needed to allow a mid-career faculty member to engage in an exciting service project or prepare to teach a new interdisciplinary course" (p. 34). At times "an off-campus summer institute or foundation grant opportunity can encourage a mid-career faculty member to take on a new challenge. Carefully targeted resources, even when modest, can motivate and enable mid-career faculty to keep growing" (p. 34, Baldwin & Chang, 2006). What are your thoughts/ perspectives about resource support? What types of resource support would you suggest? Do you have additional thoughts or ideas?

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