Academic journal article Journal of Psychological and Educational Research

The Evolution of a Psychodrama Training Group from the Perspective of the Group Process

Academic journal article Journal of Psychological and Educational Research

The Evolution of a Psychodrama Training Group from the Perspective of the Group Process

Article excerpt

Theoretical Introduction: the development process of groups

The psychodrama training group, constituted with developmental aim, will undergo the same developmental stages as other groups in which participants are interdependents, they have interactivity and a common purpose. Every elements of the group dynamics are also found in the function of these groups organised with the goal of self development for their participants. What we name group dynamics is in fact the force field, vectors born from the impacts of the power relations, and also from the emotional tensions of attraction and rejection which are born along the group process (Tenner & Toro, 1997).

Training groups are considered as "living" organisations because they have the capacity of self-organisation, self-management and potential of inner development. Their development can be characterized by some dynamic actions which occure in a particular period of time and have as result the consolidation of the group, ensuring a frame in which the process of learning can be accomplished. It is a social learning of roles, models of action, models of problem solvings which lead to the harmonization of the ego, the self development.

Therefore psychodrama training groups behave like any other group of small dimension, like Rudas (1990) also shows:

* their purpose is the development of the group members: self development, stimulation of self-knowledge, development of social abilities and interpersonal skills, and also broad social learning;

* they are not formed spontaneously, but are organised deliberately for the aims presented above - can be considered institutionalized groups;

* they are undergoing in a planned way the main stages of life: birth, growth, production, cessation;

* their goal is accomplished even by the group itself, the group interactions are causing the desired changings, the development.

In this study we would like to present the way in which a psychodrama training group is evolving and emerging in a unitary structures, well defined over the developmental process. To theoretically substantiate our topic, first we will present some theoretical models of group development based on scientific references. In the second part of our study we will pursue the process of development of a training group starting from the basic level. We will follow this process through the mature, the "production" and the conclusion stage.

Theoretical models of group development

The formation of the group to a unitary functional structure a result of the force of the group dynamics. This process takes place simultaneously with other visible events, psychodynamic phenomena like: transactions, so called group reactions, - for example: homeostasis, conflicts, the forming of the subgroups, isolation, the generalisation of the emotions (Kutter, 1982) - roles in the group, resistance in group, group-cohesion, the transmission- contratransmission. On the latent level these phenomena are sustained by the motivational structure of the participants, by needs, aspirations, unconscious fears.

As an independent domain, the theory of group dynamics appeared at the end of the '30s in USA. Kurt Levin (1947) was who introduced the term "group dynamics", in 1945 he founded the first institution for research in the domain of the group dynamics. Group dynamics is based on the situational and social tensions caused by the interactions between the group members. These at their turn generate trans-, inter- and intrapersonal phenomena, stimulate communication, give life to some curative (therapeutic) forces which stay at the base of group development, and over this acts like integrating forces at the level of group members. During networking and cooperation of the group members changes are produced also at group level as global system as well in individual psychic, changes which are influenceing each other and presents a certain parallelism. …

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