Academic journal article International Review of Management and Business Research

Determining the Relation of Social Capital with the Development of Organizational Trust and Job Attachment (the Case of the Nurses of the Non-Governmental Medical -Treatment Service Centers of Isfahan City)

Academic journal article International Review of Management and Business Research

Determining the Relation of Social Capital with the Development of Organizational Trust and Job Attachment (the Case of the Nurses of the Non-Governmental Medical -Treatment Service Centers of Isfahan City)

Article excerpt

Introduction

Having organizational trust and job attachment are factors necessary for nurses and nursing occupation. Since this job is a very sensitive one, it is necessary that nurses have trust in and attachment to their working environment. Mathieu & Zajac (2009) show that social capital plays an important part in the development of organizational trust and job attachment. Social capital comprises the different aspects of social organization such as trust, values and networks which could improve the society's efficiency by facilitating coordinated measures. Like other capitals, social capital is productive and provides access to clear objectives which are inaccessible without social capital (Tavassoli 2003). "Social capital could be defined as a certain set of informal values and norms shared by members of a group which are allowed to cooperate with one another. Participation in values and norms does not by itself lead to the production of social capital because these values might be negative ones" (Fokoyama, 2005, p. 11). Kohn and Prosac state that social capital comprises active relations between people and includes trust, mutual understanding, shared values and behaviors which link members of human networks and societies and makes cooperation possible. According to them, social capital makes the organization something more than just a group of people who try to reach some objectives.

Social capital yields cooperation, commitment, sharing information and trust. According to Patnam, social capital is the set of the characteristics of social life, networks, values and trusts which enable participants to pursue their shared goals in a more effective way (Haqshanas, 2005). Pentham distinguishes between the two initial forms of social value which are the connecting (or comprehensive) social capital and the within-the-group (or exclusive) social capital. The connecting social capital brings together people belonging to various social divisions and the within-the-group social capital improves exclusive identity and causes homogeneity. Fokoyama takes social capital as a sociological phenomenon. He believes that social capital is closely related to the radius of trust and the greater the radius of trust in a group, the greater the social capital and hence the more the cooperation and mutual trust among the group members. What is concluded from various definitions of social capital is that this concept includes concepts such as trust, cooperation, and mutual relations among group members so that the group is directed toward achieving a goal which is deemed positive on the basis of the society's current norms and values (Tavassoli, 2005). Therefore, the amount of social capital in a society could indicate the gap between that society and a society which enjoys a democratic system with maximum efficiency of economic, social system (Akbari, 2004). If the amount of social capital is low in a society, that society is highly exposed to the danger of social trap. Social trap indicates low social capital, lack of people's trust in each other, prevalence of economic-administrative corruption, fear, etc. According to Mathieu & Zajac (1990), trust is defines as the employees' surety of usefulness and stability of the organization's behavior and remarks when facing unsustainable, risky situations.

Hetty et al. (2011) define organizational trust as one party's vulnerability against the other one based upon the belief or expectation that the other party is open and trustworthy. In order to measure organizational trust, Line (2009) refers to ten aspects which include: 1. Competence, 2. Honesty, 3. Dependability (reliability), 4. Clarity and rectitude, 5. Paying attention to the employees, 6. Vulnerability, 7. Sense of identity, 8. Mutual supervision, 9. Satisfaction, 10. Commitment. In fact, the nurses' organization trust in their working environment increases their job attachment. The development of social capital among nurses also leads to their job attachment. …

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