By elaborating on the knowledge of sudden natural disasters and emergency management and Wenchuan earthquake relief and the current situation our government in dealing with sudden natural disasters, this paper analysis in sudden natural disaster emergency management the government still exists: the emergency of the subject is single, institutional setup is not reasonable, early warning monitoring mechanism emergency management and the laws and regulations are not sound, idea of public relief is not strong, lack of emergency information system and the emergency relief materials reserve is unreasonable.
Key words: Emergency; Natural disaster; Research status
1. THE CONNOTATION OF NATURAL DISASTER
Natural disaster refers to the natural phenomenon which is harm to the survival of mankind or damage to the living environment of human. According to Guo Ji, natural disasters are occurring in the process in the ecological system; it can lead to the lost stability and balance of social and economic system, the loss of social property or lead to serious imbalance in society in the supply and demand of various primary organic resources. The understanding of natural disasters is generally divided into broad sense and narrow sense. This article is mainly on the narrow understanding of natural disasters, only refers to the sudden natural disasters.
The sudden natural disasters are mainly divided into: drought, flood, typhoon, hail, sand storms and other weather disasters; earthquakes, landslides, debris flow and other geological disasters; storm surge, tsunami, red tide disasters and other ocean disasters; forest and grassland fires, crop diseases and pests and other biological hazards, a total of four categories. The above natural disasters have suddenness, which challenge the disaster prevention and treatment. The government should play a more active role in emergency management. There are some slow changes in natural phenomena, such as: land desertification, solemnization, sea level rise, seawater intrusion and so on, which cause loss or misfortune to human beings. But these phenomena occur slowly, without the sudden characteristics, are not belong to the research of government emergency management of natural disasters in this article.
2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF GOVERNMENT EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT LEGISLATION
After the founding of new China, the government emergency management legislation is more dispersive, and disaster emergency law mainly scattered in different disaster laws, special disaster emergency law is rare, such as "Destructive Earthquake Emergency Regulations", "Geological Disaster Emergency Law", "Meteorological Disaster Emergency Law", "Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China", "Mine Safety Law of the people's Republic of China" and so on. From the reality of that time, they can deal with some common disasters, but when disaster occurred in chain reaction, or in unusual situation, it is lack of adequate legal basis to carry out emergency work. Then in March, 1994, Chinese government issued "China's Agenda in Twenty-first Century", which cleared the relation between mitigation and ecological environmental protection from the national level, put improving the natural disaster management level, strengthening the system construction of disaster prevention and reducing of natural disasters caused by human factors as the important part of the agenda. In April, 1998, the state promulgated "Disaster Mitigation Planning of the people's Republic of China (1998- 2010)", which raised the guidelines, development goals, the main task and the specific measures of the national disaster reduction as special planning the first time to promote the legalization process to respond to natural disasters.
China's emergency management developed after 2003 "SARS", a series of laws and regulations were enacted, and gradually disaster reduction work was taken into the legal track, which is mainly around the emergency plan, emergency management system, mechanism and legal system, and through several important stages of development: