Academic journal article Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship

Job Satisfaction and Organizational Culture

Academic journal article Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship

Job Satisfaction and Organizational Culture

Article excerpt

Executive Summary

This study looked at job satisfaction and organizational culture using a very large diverse sample. Three propositions state that individual job satisfaction is positively correlated with a "constructive" organizational culture and negatively correlated with both a "passive/defensive" culture and an "aggressive/defensive culture." From these three propositions, 12 hypotheses are developed based on the 12 OCI subcultural scales. The subcultural scales are tested by multilevel regression analysis, using 3500 archival surveys. Previous work is extended by examining the degree to which an employee fits in with the organization. The study finds strong support for a positive correlation between the perception of the four constructive subcultures and job satisfaction and general support for a negative correlation that the four passive-defensive subcultures have with job satisfaction. The findings regarding the correlation between the perception of an aggressive-defensive subculture and job satisfaction were largely inconclusive. The mixed results for the defensive subcultures appear to be due, in part, to the dominance of constructive cultures in the random sample.

Although job satisfaction and organizational culture have been previously considered , the focus tended to be on a small sample collected within a single organization and few consider the moderating influence of person-organization fit. This effort considers a very large 3500-person sample spanning 35 private sector, educational, nonprofit, health care, government and military organizations. In addition, this work examines a dozen subcultures and evaluates the effect on relationships of age, sex, ethnic background, organization level, and years with the organization. Because each of these variables is presented in a model, a discussion of the role these variables have played in previous studies will be presented. This section also offers definitions for terms such as "job satisfaction" used in this study.

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is construed broadly to mean the perception of the degree to which work and the work setting fulfill an individual's comprehensive need requirements, including influences outside the workplace. Job satisfaction is evoked by pervasive discernment, rather than confined artificially and solely to the limits of fluid short-term emotions.

Effect of age - Griffiths ( 1999) used global job satisfaction to demonstrate a U-shaped relationship between age and global job satisfaction, reflecting relatively high job satisfaction among the younger third and the older third of workers and low satisfaction among those in the middle third (Clark, Oswald, & Warr, 1996). Building on a growing need to keep older workers in the workforce longer, she offered several explanations for the apparently high job satisfaction of older workers in the face of increasing early retirements. It may be that some workers who are dissatisfied or chronically ill exit the workforce early leaving behind the ones who are more satisfied (Clark, Oswald, & Warr, 1996).

Organization type and gender

Xin Ma and MacMillan (1999) extended the comparison of job satisfaction and organizational culture conducted by previous researchers to the domain of Canadian elementary school teachers. They collected data from all the sixth grade students and their teachers in the New Brunswick English-speaking schools (Ν = 2,202). Other area schools are exclusively French-speaking. Using multiple regression analyses, the authors found a positive correlation between job satisfaction and organizational culture. The correlation was stronger for males than females. Overall, administrative control and teacher competence exhibited a greater influence on job satisfaction than did organizational culture. Finally, females reported a higher degree of job satisfaction than males and the sense of job satisfaction tended to erode with advancing age and more time in the profession. …

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