Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Perceived Social Support and Locus of Control as the Predictors of Vocational Outcome Expectations*

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Perceived Social Support and Locus of Control as the Predictors of Vocational Outcome Expectations*

Article excerpt


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of vocational outcome expectation to social support which is an environmental factor and locus of control which is a personal factor. With this purpose, using Social Cognitive Career Theory as the theoretical framework, 263 undergraduate students completed Vocational Outcome Expectations Scale, Multidi mensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Rotter's Locus of Control Scale. Results indicated that perceived social support from family, friends and significant others were positively and locus of control were negatively associated with vocational outcome expectations. The results also indicated that within the perceived social support dimensions, family support was the unique significant predictor of vocational outcome expectation. Locus of control significantly predicted vocational outcome expectation scores as well. In the light of these findings, suggestions that interventions targeting to increase vocational outcome expectations of students had better take the fa mi ly support into consideration and i nclude exercises for families were emphasized and ideas for future research are discussed.

Key Words

Vocational Outcome Expectations, Social Cognitive Career Theory, Perceived Social Support, Family Support, Locus of Control, Undergraduate Students.

Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) has been one of the most studied career approaches in recent years. SCCT, different from previous trait-factor theories, believe in the necessity to assess interest but additionally, emphasize the importance of developing those career interests. For the career choice process, Lent, Brown, and Hackett (1994; 2000) proposed a model in which self-efficacy and outcome expectations develop via four sources of information, namely performance accomplishments, vicarious learning, social persuasion, and emotional arousal on the grounds of personal inputs (e.g. predispositions, gender, race) and contextual factors (e. g. barriers, support). These beliefs are then translated into interests, choice goals, choice actions, and performances. Thus, self-efficacy and outcome expectations emerge as two key figures in SCCT due to their importance in explaining career interests, choices, and performances (Lent, 2005; Lent et al., 1994,2000).

Outcome expectation can be defined as ones beliefs in consequences of an action (Bandura, 1997). Specifically, vocational outcome expectations could be considered as the imagined consequences of performing academic and career behaviors that would be useful to subsequent career options and decisions (Betz & Voyten, 1997). Two sentences representing these beliefs are "My career/occupation choice will provide the income I need." and "My career/occupation choice will allow me to have the lifestyle that I want."

The influence of significant people on career development process has received much attention in recent years (Ali, McWhirter, & Chronister, 2005; Constantine, Wallace, & Kindaichi, 2005; Gushue & Whitson, 2006; Lent et al., 2000; Metheny, McWhirter, & O'Neil, 2008). Some qualitative research on social support demonstrated that undergraduate students perceive their family as a significant source of support in their career decisions, career information gathering process, and as a role model (Schultheiss, Kress, Manzi, & Glasscock, 2001; Schultheiss, Palma, Predragovich, & Glasscock, 2002). Students perceive support from their families have less career indecisions, believe that they will be more successful in their chosen career, and easily adapt to the school to work transition (Hamamci & Hamurlu, 2005; Kenny, Blustein, Chaves, Grossman, & Gallaghter, 2003; Philips, Blustein, Jobin-Davis, & White, 2002).

Locus of control makes the distinction whether people feel they possess the control over their life or the control is mostly on factors such as luck or chance, which the former is characterized as internal and the latter as external locus of control (Rotter, 1966, 1990). …

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