Academic journal article Asian Social Science

The Management of Water Points in Niger under the Communalization

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

The Management of Water Points in Niger under the Communalization

Article excerpt

Abstract

This paper seeks to analyze the management of water points in Niger according to the communalization process. It explains how the new reform of management in the supply of water, as a government policy, in the local areas raises new issues in Sahel and Niger countries. It looks into the issue of water supply which is at the heart of public policy to the countryside. It analyzes not only the importance of water points in Niger but also some sources of concern in the use according to the different logics involved. The paper further relates the role of media in social change according to the using of water in order to protect climate change. The paper concludes that, if, the aim for central and local authorities is to achieve local development, the confrontation between these two approaches must contribute to achieve the desired effect. The paper recommends that in order to solve this social problem, the mayors and central authorities must take into consideration the reaction of the different actors and should install in all the country the Land Commission under the Rural Safety Program.

Keywords: water management, communalization, social significance and logics

1. Introduction

In accordance with its climate, the major water resources in Niger is River Niger and several lakes, ponds, goulbis and numerous water spread over the territory. These water bodies are used as source of drinking and fanning by the population It should be noted that Niger's population practices an agro-forestry pastoral oriented activities, in other words it can be said that fanners and nomads live in those areas. Fanners and nomads have each others logic in using water. These two approaches are now regulated by the State and its departments, especially with the new policy of communalization committed since 2004. Such regulation or management of water points by the various actors do not go smoothly. In this paper, I first try to make a brief presentation of Niger, explain the materials and the method used, define the concepts above. Then, I talked about the mechanism of managing water in both traditionally and modern before talking about the management of water under the communalization.

2. Statement of the Problem

Niger is a landlocked country in the Western part of Africa, sharing border with Nigeria and Benin to the south, with Mali and Burkina Faso to the west, with Algeria and Libya to the north and Chad to the east. Niger is the largest nation in West Africa with an area of about 1,267,000 km2; also, the population of Niger is estimated at about 15,000,000 in 2011.

Niger is a developing country with over 80% of its territory covered by the Sahara desert. But it should be noted that Niger's population practices an agro-forestry pastoral oriented activities, in other words, fanners and nomads live in those areas. Fanners and nomads have each other's logic in using water. In this case, water and space must be protected in order to have a good management of these resources in a decentralized system.

Management of water in a decentralized system must be understood as the meeting of different stake holders to secure a property. In a sociological approach, it can be defined as from its institutionalized nature, for the function it fulfills but also and especially through the means of access to the water by different actors.

However, there are some problems in this management. Nomadic people using water are not exactly defined because there are some taxes that must be paid in each area. We can also add how to use public water in our village because in the traditional mode water is not the subject of numerous protocols. In this case, we must ask how to make a water management in this system in order to have good achievement? What is the status of Water Sources, the sources of concern and the logic of confrontation?

3. Materials and Method

This research work is a product of literature materials collected from library data such as text books, journals, periodicals, magazines, government reports and others. …

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