Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Relationship between Motivational Factors and Job Performance of Employees in Malaysian Service Industry

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Relationship between Motivational Factors and Job Performance of Employees in Malaysian Service Industry

Article excerpt


Recent developments in service industry have heightened the need for motivating employees. The aim of this study was to have better understanding on factors of employee motivation and their association with job performance in Malaysian servicing organizations. The dependent variable in this study is job performance. The independent variables are motivational factors namely payment, job security, promotion, freedom, friendly environment and training. A correlation research design was used in this study. Survey method was used to collect data. The research instrument was a structured questionnaire. A convenience sampling technique was used to select the respondents for this study. A total of 130 employees of service organizations constituted the sample. The results showed that among the motivational factors, two variables were found to be significant predictors of job performance. Training contributed 40.4% to job performance while promotion contributed an additional 3%. An interesting finding of the research is that intrinsic motivational factors are considered more important compared to extrinsic motivational factors such as payment, job security, and friendly environment. Freedom an intrinsic variable however was not found to be significantly related to job performance.

Keywords: job performance, motivation, employees in service organizations

1. Introduction

1.1 Research Background

As performance of employees is significant for organizations, the management should consider improving performance of workers in their companies by encouraging them to do their tasks and duties as efficiently and effectively as possible. Therefore, motivation in firms is absolutely important and necessary because it could change the behaviour of employees in positive ways. That is why many managers believe that when they establish motivated employees in the workplace, they can observe significant achievements in their organizations.

For better understanding of the role of motivation, we should know the meaning of motivation. Motivation is a Latin word and it means "To move" (Wade & Tavris, 2008). Psychologists believe that motivation is the process that drives individual towards achieving a goal. Moreover, motivation gives a person a purpose and the drive that he needs to achieve it. It helps people to push or pull from a bad situation, which are negative features in their lives. Nowadays, employers are interested to know about motivation and how to motivate their employees to improve productivity.

Brayfield and Crockett (1995) studied on the relationship between motivational factors and job performance of employees. They believed that there is little relationship between these two variables. Vroom (1964) reviewed for this subject and he realized that the median correlation between these two variables was 0.14. Miner (2003) believes if one wishes to create a highly valid theory, which is also constructed with the purpose of enhanced usefulness in practice in mind, it would be best to look to motivation theories for an appropriate model.

Malaysia is a developing country in Asia and houses to many service firms, which contribute toward its economy. Moreover, Malaysian service organizations play significant roles both socially and economically. Providing the employees of Malaysian service companies with motivating factors would influence their job performance and make them more successful as the enterprisers. This would be good for Malaysia.

It is important that a manager knows the primary needs of workers to manage and address them toward great job performance in service firms. When their needs are met, the employees are likely to take responsibility for their performance and thus they will perform well to achieve their organization's goals.

1.2 Research Problem

Taylor (1856-1915) and Gilbreth (1868-1924) believed that the employees have little feeling to work, so they need to be motivated. …

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