Academic journal article International Journal of Linguistics

The Strategies of Conveying Speaker and Hearer as Cooperators in Conversation Class: Sociopragmatic Analysis

Academic journal article International Journal of Linguistics

The Strategies of Conveying Speaker and Hearer as Cooperators in Conversation Class: Sociopragmatic Analysis

Article excerpt

Abstract

This study explores the strategies of conveying speaker and hearer as cooperators suggested by Brown and Levinson (1987) - the strategy of asserting or presupposing speaker's knowledge of and concern for hearer's wants, the strategy of including both speaker and hearer in the activity, and the strategy of giving (or asking) reasons. The data of the research is taken from conversation class in The Center Bandung, Indonesia. The teachers are the Americans and the members are the Indonesians. The writers observe the teachers as the speakers who use the strategies of conveying speaker and hearer as cooperators to make the conversation works. They use those strategies to encourage the students to use English courageously and actively. The goals of this analysis are to know the strategies used by the speakers in the conversation class and to examine the perlocutionary effects caused by the strategy used by the speaker to the hearer. The research uses a qualitative descriptive method. The data are analyzed using a pragmatic approach. The main theory used to analyze the data is the strategies to convey speaker and hearer are cooperators as the strategy in positive politeness, written by Brown and Levinson. The speakers use the strategy of asserting or presupposing speaker's knowledge of and concern for hearer's wants, the strategy of including both speaker and hearer in the activity, and the strategy of giving (or asking) reasons. The perlocutionary effects to the addressees are making them courageously speak English even though some of them are not fluent in English, giving their own opinion, and trying to ask voacbulary in English. The writers also will find out social variables constituted in the conversation.

Keywords: Speaker, Hearer, Conveying cooperator strategies, Positive politeness

1. Introduction

The research is conducted in English conversation class in Bandung, Indonesia to investigate the strategies used by the native speakers to encourage the Indonesians to learn and use English. This research is inspired mainly by the fact that there has been an increasing popularity of native speakers, like from American and England, who interest the Indonesians to learn English with the native speakers. The Indonesians prefer learning English with native speaker to learning English with Indonesia teacher.

The increasing number of English learners in Bandung, Indonesia is likely to be triggered by the necessity to be able to speak English in every aspect area. The effectiveness in learning and speaking English can be achieved through conversation class. It makes the student have no choice to use their ability in English to answer the teachers' questions. In our opinion, the conversation class makes the students use English and the teacher will correct directly if they do mistakes in words, grammar, and pronunciation. This way is very effective than just gives the lesson without asking or involving the students in the class. According to Young (2006: 479), understanding learner's foreign language (L2) learning is very important because through this understanding teacher as well as other related parties can obtain "some useful insights" which they can use to improve the quality of its teaching and learning.

The writers analyze the strategies of conveying speaker and hearer as cooperators suggested by Brown and Levinson (1987) used by native speakers in the Center Bandung, Indonesia to make the conversation between the native speakers and the Indonesians work. The Center Bandung, Indonesia is different from other English conversation classes in Indonesia. The Center Bandung is established by the Americans and offers the Indonesians to come and join in the activity together. They invite the Indonesians to come and do conversation with them anytime; there is no regular time to come. The native speakers create familiar surrounding and close relationship among the members. They expect the Indonesians to learn and practice their English a lot. …

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